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1831,

STATE DEBT, REVENUE, AND EXPENDITURE. The State Debt of South Carolina amounted in Dec. 1831, to $1,753,770.91, bearing an annual interest of

$91,913.12 Receipts from all sources from Sept. 30th, 1830, to Oct. 1st,

276,836.30 Balance in the Treasury October 1st, 1830,

113,753.33

$390,589.63 Expenditure for the year ending Sept. 30th, 1831,

282,102.69 Balance in the Treasury Oct. 1st, 1831,

$108,486,94 The entire Sinking Fund, Oct. 1st, 1831, was

$ 422,852.68 The Capital of the State Bank, same date,

1,156,318.48 The Profits of the Bank for year ending as above,

120,000.00 Aggregate Expenditure of the General Government of South

Carolina from June 1st, 1790, to October 1st 1824, $12,398,323.79 Of this sum paid for salaries,

1,695,308.00 For the transient poor of Charleston,

179,525.51 Several works of general utility have received large appropriations from the state. In many of the rivers, obstructions have been removed ; and, in others, canals have been dug, with locks, around shoals and falls. An excellent road has been made from Buncombe county in North Carolina, through the Saluda Gap, by Columbia, to Charleston, which has produced incalculable benefit. Numerous and costly causeways have been constructed in various parts of the state. The map of the state cost $63,121.21. The total disbursements for objects of internal improvement, from June 1st, 1790, to October 1st, 1824, were $1,475,245.28; and there had been expended, during the same period, for public buildings, exclusive of South Carolina College, $730,863.93.

BANKS.

In December, 1831, a new bank was established at Columbia, by the name and style of The Commercial Bank of Columbia, South Carolina, with a capital of $500,000, and liberty to increase it to $800,000. Also, a new Branch of the Bank of the State of South Carolina has been established at Hamburg, in addition to those mentioned in the American Almanac for 1831.

EDUCATION. The Colleges in this State are, the South Carolina College, at Columbia, and Charleston College, at Charleston. Charters have been granted for Colleges at Cambridge, Winnsborough, and Beaufort; but these have never been more than respectable grammar schools. The South Carolina College was established in 1804. In October, 1824, according to the Comptroller's report of that year, this institution had cost the State $290,751.82. Of this sum there had been expended in buildings, library, and cabinet of minerals, $154,234 82; for salaries of instructers, $132,989; for insurance of buildings, $3,528. Since the 1st of October, 1824, the legislative appropriations have been about $120,000. The entire expense of this college to the State has, therefore, exceeded $420,000. Its library consists of about 8,000 volumes. Its buildings have become very much dilapidated.

The College of Charleston was originally chartered in 1785, but it was no more than a respectable grammar school till 1824, when it was organized anew, and placed on a respectable footing as a college. It has a large number of students, and one of the most valuable college buildings in the United States. Its income is chiefly derived from tuition. Its library consists of about 3,000 volumes, besides several hundreds belonging to societies in the College. This institution received some years since the munificent donations of $10,000 from Elias Horry, Esq., and of $12,500 from the late Thomas Hanscome, Esq.

The Medical College of South Carolina is situated in Charleston, and has, during several years, received extensive patronage.

The Presbyterian Theological Seminary of South Carolina and Georgia is established at Columbia, and is in a flourishing state.

The free-school system was adopted in 1821. In October, 1824, there had been paid on account of free schools, $441,176.90. The annual legislative appropriation for their support is from $37,000 to $38,000. About 8,000 or 9,000 children are instructed in them.

INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT. CANALS. Santee Canal. This canal was completed in 1802. Length 22 miles, extending from the Santee to Cooper's river. Width at the surface of the water, 32 feet, at bottom, 20; depth, 4 feet. From the Santee, the ground rises 35 feet to the summit level, which is overcome by 4 locks. Towards Cooper's river the descent is 68 feet, overcome by nine locks. The locks are 60 feet long by 10 wide. Cost, $650,667. This enterprise is said to have proved disastrous to those engaged in it. By means of Dreln and Lorick's Canals, Saluda and Broad rivers, and Saluda and Columbia Canals, navigation is continued from the Santee river to Columbia.

Winyau Canal unites the Santee river with Winyaw bay. Length, 10 miles.

RAIL-ROADS. The Charleston and Hamburg Rail-road, extending from the city of Charleston to Hamburg, on Savannah river, opposite to Au-.

gusta, is now far advanced in its construction. The whole length of the rail-road, when completed, will be about 135 miles. It is expected that it will be entirely finished early in 1833; and there are now several locomotive cars employed upon it for the conveyance of passengers, and produce of various kinds. The mail, for Columbia, is conveyed on the rail-road, over the first 15 miles from Charleston. The entire cost of its construction is estimated at $700,000. It is constructed of wood, with tracks of iron, and is intended for steam locomotive engines. This rail-road was undertaken by the South Carolina Canal and Rail-road Company, aided by the state. A second rail-road of about the same length, extending from Charleston to Columbia, is embraced among the objects of the Company.

XV. GEORGIA.

GOVERNMENT.

Salary: WILSON LUMPKIN, Governor ; term of office expires Nov. 1833, $3,000 E. Hamilton, Secretary of State,

2,000 John Williams, Treasurer,

2,000 I. Bethune, Surveyor General,

2,000 T. B. Howard, Comptroller General,

2,000 Thomas Stocks,

President of the Senate, Asbury Hall,

Speaker of the House of Representatives. The Senate consists of 78 members; the House of Representatives of 185.

William H. Crawford,
Thaddeus G. Holt,
William Law,
Charles Doughurty,
Lucius Q. C. Lamar,
Christopher B. Strong,
Lot Warren,
Walter T. Colquitt,

JUDICIARY.

Superior Court.
Judge of the

Northern Circuit,
do.

Southern Circuit, do.

Eastern Circuit, do.

Western Circuit, do.

Oakmulgee Circuit,
do.

Flint Circuit,
do. Middle Circuit,

Chatahoochee Circuit,

Salary. $2,100

2,100 2,100 2,100 2,100 2,100 2,100 2,100

do.

Inferior Court. An Inferior Court is held in each county, each composed of five justices, elected by the people every four years. These Courts possess the powers of Courts of Probate. The justices have no salary.

Four new counties have been formed since 1831 ; viz. Cherokee, Heard, Sumpter, and Stewart. The name Cherokee is given, at present, to all the

lands occupied by that tribe of Indians, and is organized for purposes of criminal jurisdiction.

EDUCATION A Manual-laboring School was commenced at Eatonton January, 1831, and is in a prosperous condition. The Baptist Convention have purchased a plantation, and intend to commence a school in January, 1833, at the same place, for both theological and literary students.

INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT. CANALS. Savannah and Ogeechee Canal. This Canal was constructed by the Savannah, Ogeechee, and Alatamaha Company. The work was commenced in 1825, and completed in 1829. It extends from the city of Savannah to Ogeechee river, 16 miles, uniting the waters of the Ogeechee with those of the Savannah. Width at the bottom, 33 feet; depth of water, 5 feet. Lockage, 29 feet. The locks are 90 feet long by 18 wide. Cost, as estimated, $162,276. Of the stock, $40,000 were subscribed by the state of Georgia. It is proposed to continue this Canal to the Alatamaha, the distance of 60 miles, with a navigable feeder of 14 miles. Estimated cost, $621,156.

RAIL-ROAD. The Alatamaha and Brunswick Rail-road, extending from the Alatamaha to Brunswick, is about 12 miles in length. Company incorporated in 1831. Commenced in 1832.

Rail-roads have also been projected from Augusta to Heshman's lake (50 miles); and from Augusta to Columbus on the Chatahoochee.

XVI. ALABAMA.

1,000

GOVERNMENT.

Salary. JOHN GAYLE, Governor, term of office from Nov. 1831,

$2,000 Nov. 1833, James T. Thornton, Secretary of State, George W. Crabb, Comptroller of Public Accounts,

1,000 Hardin Perkins, State Treasurer,

,1,000 Constantine Perkins, Attorney General,

$425 and perquisites. The Senate consists of 22 members; the House of Representatives of 72 members. The pay of the members of both Houses is $4 a day each.

JUDICIARY. The State is divided in Seven Circuits, in each of which there is a cir. cuit judge; and the Supreme Court is formed by a union of these seven judges.

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RAIL-ROADS. Tennessee and Alabama Rail-road. Company incorpo. rated in 1832. Capital, $3,000,000, to be divided into shares of $100 each. (From The Mobile Register.”) It is known that a population of, at least, 200,000 already inhabit the counties bordering on the Upper Tennessee and its tributaries, and that they have no market, or outlet for their products, but the long, expensive, and almost iropracticable route to New Orleans. The country embraces about 40 counties, in Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia ; and it is not inferior in fertility to other portions of the states to which it belongs.

The Hiwasse is a considerable stream, rising in the mountains of Georgia, and, running a northwesterly course, discharges itself into the Tennessee above the Suck. For more than 22 miles it is navigable for steamboats at all seasons of the year. Commencing at the head of steamboat naviga. tion on the Hiwasse, it is proposed to construct a rail-road to McNair's boat-yard, on the Connessauga, an upper branch of the Coosa, distant 16 miles. Cost, estimated at $51,000. From McNair's boat-yard, descending the Connessauga to Echota or New Town, a good navigation for towo boats, drawing two feet of water, may be perfected at an expense of $8,000. Echota may be considered the limit of steam navigation. The river then takes the name of the Oosternaulle, and, for the space of 60 miles, descending to the head of the Coosa, every obstacle to an uninterrupted navigation may be removed for $5,000. Thence to the Ten Islands, 105 miles, all obstructions may be removed for $1,000, making, in all, 271 miles of communication to be effected at the expense of $65,000. From the Ten Islands to Selma, in Alabama, the distance is 105 miles, and it is proposed to connect these points by a rail-road. The route has not yet been surveyed. In making an estimate of the cost, we have to rely on such data as are furnished by experiments in other States. The Charleston and Hamburg Rail-road was let out to responsible contractors at $4,000 per inile. It is believed that a double track can be constructed at an addition of fifty per cent on the cost of a single one, but assuming twice the amount, we have $735,000 for the cost of a rail-road from the Ten Islands to Selma, making the

aggregate distance from the Tennessee, to Selma on the Alabama, of 371 miles, and to Mobile of 600 miles, and the whole cost of the improvements $800,000.

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