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to 340 tons of coal are discharged daily at the river. Single track. Cost, $3,050 per mile.

Mount Carbon Rail-road. Company incorporated in the spring of 1829, and the road commenced in October following. It commences at Mount Carbon, and extends to Morrisville, and thence through Pottsville to the Forks. Two and three tracks. Cost, $100,000.

Schuylkill Valley Rail-road commences at Port Carbon, and terminates at Tuscarora. Length, ten miles. It has fifteen lateral Rail-roads intersecting it, the united lengths of which amount to about thirteen miles. The main road has two tracks; the lateral roads but one. Cost of the main stem, $5,500 per mile; that of the lateral roads $2,600 per mile.

The Schuylkill Rail-road, thirteen miles in length, consists of a double track; cost $7,000 per mile.

Mill Creek Rail-road commences at Port Carbon, and extends up Mill Creek four miles. Single track. Cost, $14,000. About three miles of lateral rail-road intersect the main stem, which cost about $2,000 per mile.

TI West Branch Rail-road commences at Schuylkill haven, at the foot of Broad mountain. Length, including the west branch, fifteen miles. Double track on the inain stem. Cost, $150,000. There are, in addition, lateral branches of a single track, five miles long, intersecting it, which cost per mile $2,000.

Pine Grove Rail-road extends from the mines to Swatara feeder, five miles. Cost, $30,000. See Union Canal.

The Little Schuylkill Rail-road commences at Port Clinton, and extends up the stream to the mines at Tamaqua, about twenty-three miles. Completed in 1831.

The Lackawaxen Rail-road commences at the termination of the Lacka. waxen and Delaware and Hudson Canal, connecting that canal with the coal-bed at Carbondale. Length, 16 miles, an elevation of 800 feet being overcome by five inclined planes, each from 2,000 to 3,000 feet in length. Single track. Cost, $6,500 per mile.

The Central Rail-road extends from Pottsville to Sunbury, near the junction of the Susquehanna, with its western branch. A branch rail-road is to be constructed to Danville.

The West Chester Rail-road leads from the borough of West Chester to Paoli, where it joins the Philadelphia and Columbia Rail-road. Com. pleted 1832. Estimated cost, cluding cars and all other charges, $90,000.

The Philadelphia, Germantown, and Norristown Rail-road is about 19 miles in length, extending from Philadelphia to Norristown on the Schuylkill. Completed in 1832. A rail-road is also projected from Norristown to the Lehigh river, at Allentown.

Philadelphia and Delaware County Rail-road is to extend froin Philadelphia, south-westerly, along the western margiu of Delaware river. Leave

has been obtained from the legislature of Delaware, to continue it through that State to Maryland line, towards Baltimore.

Sixty-seven other rail-roads have been projected in this state, and companies for constructing several of them have been incorporated.



David HAZZARD, Governor; (term of office expires on the third Tuesday in January 1833); salary



Thomas Clayton,
James R. Black,
Saml. L. Harrington,
Peter Robinson,

Chief Justice,

salary $1,200 Associate Jus. for Newcastle county, 1,000 do. for Kent county,

1,000 do. for Sussex county,


Kepsey Johns, Jr.,




On the second Tuesday in November 1831, a convention of the people of Delaware was held at Dover, to change the Constitution, which had remained unaltered from 1792. The Delegates of that Convention, 30 in number, adopted unanimously, on the second of December, several important Amendments. The principal of these are the following: viz.

1. The Judiciary system is entirely changed. It now consists of five Judges, as appears by the above statement. The Superior Court consists of the Chief Justice, and two Associates who do not reside in the county where the Court is held. This Court entertains civil common law jurisdiction. The Court of Sessions of the Peace is composed in the same

The Court of Oyer is composed of the four law judges. The Orphan's Court is composed of the Chancellor and the resident Associate Judge of the county.

2. The Legislature will hereafter hold biennial sessions only, unless convened by the Governor for éxtraordinary causes.

3. The Governor will in future be elected once in four years, with a salary of $1,333.33 per annum. Sheriffs are to be elected once in two years. The Governor appoints the Judges, and they are commissioned during good behavior.

4. Convention may at any time be held, at the call of the people, to change the Constitution ; but a majority of all the persons entitled to vote,


is necessary for this purpose. To determine this majority, reference must be made to the greatest number of votes given at any one of the three state elections next preceding.

The annual state expenses of Delaware are estimated as follows : Judiciary,

$5,300 Attorney General, besides Governor,

1,333 perquisites, Secretary of State,

400 Legislative Assembly, 2,600 Auditor,

Other expenses,


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Total, $13,000 This does not include the County expenses, which each County pays for itself, nor the expenses of Schools, which are in part paid from a School Fund.

Wilmington has been incorporated as a City. Its population is now estimated at about 10,000.


Canals. Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is partly in the state of Delaware and partly in Maryland, connecting Delaware river with Chesapeake bay. Length, 13ş miles ; breadth at the surface, 66 feet; depth, 10 feet, being designed for sloop navigation. It leaves Delaware river 45 miles below Philadelphia, passes across the peninsula, and communicates with Chesapeake bay at Back creek. It has two tide and 2 lift locks, 100 feet by 22 feet in the chamber. The summit level is 12 feet above tide-water. At the eastern termination of the canal, at Delaware City, a harbor extends 500 feet along the shore, from which 2 piers, that distance apart, project 250 feet into the river nearly opposite fort Del vare. Commenced in 1824 ; opened for navigation in 1829. Cost, $2,200,000.

RAIL-ROADS. Newcastle and Frenchtown Rail-road is nearly parallel to the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, and is in direct competition with it. It extends from Newcastle on Delaware river to Frenchtown, in the state of Maryland, affording communication between Delaware river and Chesapeake bay. It consists of a single track with the requisite number of turnouts, and is about 16 miles in length-only 853 yards longer than a per. fectly straight line drawn between its two extremities. It consists of 6 curve and 6 straight lines. The curve lines vary in length from 1,939 to 8,296 feet. The radii of the three smaller curves are of 10,560 feet each; the radius of the largest 20,000 feet. The aggregate length of the curves is 5.16 miles; that of the straight lines 11.3 miles. The graduation of the road departs from a perfect level by ascents and descents varying from 10 feet 6 inches to 16 feet 4 inches a mile; at one place, for about 4,000 feet, the slope is at the rate of 29 feet to the mile. The whole ainount of excavation is about 500,000 cubic yards of earth, exclusive of the side drains

The amount of embankment 420,000 cubic yards. The road crosses 4 viaducts and 29 culverts, all constructed of substantial stone masonry. Width, 26 feet, exclusive of the side drains. Completed in 1832. Cost, including land, wharf, depots, and locomotive engines, $100,000.

Wilmington and Downingtown Rail-road. Company incorporated in 1831. Capital, $100,000, with liberty to increase it to $150,000. Rail. road to extend from Wilmington to the boundary line of the state, in the direction of Downingtown, Penn.

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Salary, GEORGE HOWARD, Governor ; term of office expires Jan. 1833.

$3,500 William Potter, T. C. Worthington, Samuel Turner, Robert W. Bowie,

and George W. Purnell, Executive Council.

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Senators elected for 5 years, on the 3d Monday in Sept. 1831.
Berij. S. Forrest, President.
Octavius C. Taney, Calvert.

1B. S. Forrest,

Montgomery. Benj. S. Pigman, Alleghany. George Reed,

Caroline. Charles F. Mayer, Baltimore City. Thomas Emory, Queen Ann. John G. Chapman, Charles. William Hughlett,

Talbot. Th. B. Sappington, Frederick. Henry Page,

Dorchester. James Montgomery,

Harford. Littleton P. Dennis, Somerset. Wm. T. Wootten, Prince George. Samuel G. Osborn, Kent. Dennis Claude, Annapolis.

The House of Delegates is composed of 80 members, elected annually, 4 from each of the 19 counties, and two from each of the cities of Annapolis and Baltimore. Richard Thomas, Speaker.

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The state is divided into six judicial districts, for each of which there are a chief judge and two associate judges. The Court of Appeals is composed of the six chief judges of the six districts; and the associate judges of the District Courts are judges of the County Courts of each county within the district.

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Theodore Bland,



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Actual income of the State for the year ending as above,
Balance in Treasury Dec. 1, 1830,



Available aggregate for 1831,
The disbursements for the year ending as above,

$ 294,002.07


Balance in Treasury,
Subject to appropriations not then called for,



Unappropriated Balance in the Treasury Dec. 1, 1831, $35,367.22

This Balance would enable the Committee to discharge the whole of the public debt, which was payable at the pleasure of the State.

INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT. CANALS. Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. Charter granted by Virginia, 1824 ; confirmed by Maryland and Congress, 1825. Commenced in 1828. Proposed length 3414 miles; to extend from tide water of the Potomac river above Georgetown, in the District of Columbia, and terminate near Pittsburg, Penn. Breadth at the surface of the water, from 60 to 80 feet; at bottom 50 feet; depth from 6 to 7 feet. The first 2 miles of this Canal above Georgetown, are 70 feet wide on the surface, and 7 feet deep ; the next 2 miles are 80 feet wide, and 6 feet deep. The remaining distance to the Point of Rocks, (44 miles,) 60 feet wide and 6 deep. Five miles from Georgetown the Canal is planned for constructing branches severally to Alexandria, Baltimore, and to the navy yard at Washington. The locks are

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