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A. RENAISSANCE IN EDUCATION.
Colleges founded; introduction of Printing, 1477;
Greek taught at Oxford (Grocyn, 1491). B. RENAISSANCE IN LITERATURE. 1. Early Writers. a. Wyatt and Surrey introduced respectively the
sonnet and blank verse, in poems published
in Tottel's Miscellany, 1557.
Shepherd's Calendar, 1579, to death of Shakespeare,
Other dramatists: Kyd, Peele, Greene, Mid
dleton, Dekker, Chapman, Ben Jonson, etc. c. Sidney, poet and prose writer, 1554-1586. d. Hooker, theologian and prose writer, 1553-1600. e. Bacon, philosopher and essayist, 1561-1626. f. Raleigh's History of the World, 1614.
2. The Decline of the Renaissance and the Expression of the
Reformation in Literature, from the death of Shakespeare, 1616, to the Restoration, 1660. A. LATER ELIZABETHAN LITERATURE.
1. Ben Jonson, and Beaumont and Fletcher, dramatists. 2. The Spenserian School, poets following the manner
of Spenser. 3. Cavalier Lyrists, Herrick, Lovelace, Suckling, etc. B. RELIGIOUS POETS. 1. John Donne, George Herbert, Henry Vaughan,
Church of England. 2. John Milton, Puritan, 1608–1674. C. PROSE WRITERS. 1. Sir Thomas Browne, Isaak Walton, Richard Burton,
Jeremy Taylor, John Milton.
OF THE FRENCH INFLUENCE,
1. The England of the Restoration, or The Age of Dryden, 16601700.
a. John Dryden, 1631-1700, satirist and writer
of comedies. b. Other Dramatists, Farquhar, Wycherley, Con
greve, etc., etc.
Mary on the throne, and shows the increasing
and Samson Agonistes, 1667–1671.
morality and Profaneness of the Stage, 1698, and in part purifies the drama.
2. The Age of Pope, 1700-1750.
Alexander Pope, 1688–1744; satire, criticism, and
philosophy in verse. B. PROSE.
a. Daniel Defoe and Jonathan Swift, political
writers and pamphleteers. They contribute
to the development of fiction. b. Richard Steele and Joseph Addison, Periodical
Essayists, who in the Tatler, Spectator, etc.
contribute to the development of the novel. c. Richardson, Fielding, Smollett, and Sterne,
3. The Age of Johnson. (Later followers of Dryden and Pope.)
a. Dr. Samuel Johnson, moralist, critic, lexi
cographer, and literary dictator of his day. b. Associated with Johnson were: Oliver Gold
smith, Edmund Burke, David Garrick (actor), Sir Joshua Reynolds (painter).
IV. THE MODERN ENGLISH PERIOD, ABOUT 1725–1909
1. Allan Ramsay's Gentle Shepherd, 1725.
Village, 1770, etc.
Lyrical Ballads, 1798.
Democracy, as seen in the works of Thomson, Goldsmith,
Cowper, Gray, Burns, Wordsworth, and Coleridge. C. THE NEW INTEREST IN THE ROMANTIC PAST. 1. Dodsley's Old Plays, 1774. Percy's Reliques of
Ancient English Poetry, 1764. 2. Poems of Thomas Chatterton, 1752–1770. 3. David Garrick's performances of Shakespeare's
plays in London, 1741-1776. 4. Sir Walter Scott, 1771-1832.
a. Poems, about 1805–1832.
b. Waverley Novels, 1814–1831.
(Fall of the Bastile, 1789.)
a. Byron, 1788–1824.
b. Shelley, 1792–1822. E. JOHN KEATS, 1795–1821, the poet of Beauty, interested es
pecially in classic Greek and romantic Medieval themes. F. ESSAYISTS: 1. Charles Lamb, 1775–1834, familiar essayist and
critic. 2. Other essayists, Thomas De Quincey, Leigh Hunt,
William Hazlitt, etc.
2. The Victorian Era (about 1832–1901).
Reign of Queen Victoria, 1837-1901.
step in the advance of democracy.
1859, the greatest single contribution to modern
1. Macaulay, 1800–1859, popular historian and critic.
prophet to his age. 3. John Ruskin, 1819–1900, art critic, social reformer,
prophet. 4. Cardinal Newman, 1801-1890, theologian, educator,
critic. 5. Matthew Arnold, 1822–1888, poet and literary and
J. R. Green (historians); Frederick Harrison,
(critics and essayists).
1. Charles Dickens, 1812–1870.
Anthony Trollope; Charlotte, Emily, and Anne
Stevenson; Rudyard Kipling, etc.
science, and faith. 2. Robert Browning, 1812–1889, poet of faith. 3. Matthew Arnold and Arthur Hugh Clough, poets
of doubt. 4. Rise of Pre-Raphaelite School of Poetry and Painting,
about 1848. Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Morris, prominent poets in this school.