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PAGE ALLOWAY KIRK .

308 WILLIAM WORDSWORTH

315 RYDAL MOUNT

317 SIR WALTER SCOTT

facing 332 MELROSE ABBEY

336 LORD BYRON

facing 350 VIEW OF BRANTWOOD, RUSKIN'S HOME, LAKE CONISTON 397 CRICKET GREEN AND COLLEGE TOWERS, WINCHESTER 403 CHARLES DICKENS .

413 WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THACKERAY

facing 420 BIRTHPLACE OF GEORGE ELIOT

423 GEORGE ELIOT

426 ROBERT BROWNING

446 ALFRED TENNYSON .

facing 452 FARRINGFORD

455

LITERARY MAP OF ENGLAND .

facing 464

A GENERAL OUTLINE OF ENGLISH

LITERATURE

I. THE PERIOD OF PREPARATION

1. From the Beginning to the Norman Conquest, — to 1066.
A. CONTINENTAL AND PRE-CHRISTIAN ERA.
1. Widsith.

English begin to settle in Britain, 449.
Landing of St. Augustine and the Introduction

of Christianity, 597.
B. CAEDMON TO ALFRED (670–871)
1. Literature in Wessex.

Aldhelm, poet and scholar, 670?–709.
2. Literature in Northumbria.

a. Beowulf.
b. Caedmon's paraphrase of Genesis and Exodus,

etc.
c. Cynewulf; religious poems.
d. Bede, scholar and historian, writes in Latin

the Ecclesiastical History of the English People. C. ALFRED TO THE NORMAN CONQUEST (871-1066).

Invasions of the Danes, 787-878.
Accession of Alfred the Great, 871.

Peace of Chippenham, 878.
1. Revival of Prose under Alfred, 880.

a. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
b. Alfred's Translations from Latin into Old

English, or Anglo-Saxon Prose.
2. From Death of Alfred to Norman Conquest.

Ælfric about 950?-1016?

2. Norman Conquest to the Death of Chaucer (1066-1400).

William the Conqueror wins the Battle of Hastings,

1066.

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PREFACE

In this shorter book I have not hesitated to make what use I could of my earlier Introduction to English Literature, but I have found that comparatively little of it was suited to my present purpose. The general plan, and chief chronological divisions have been retained, but apart from this the present book is largely new, written in a simple style and designed to meet a different need. There is less literary criticism and relatively more biography, while many authors and books mentioned in the larger work are here barely alluded to or passed over altogether. As far as possible the mere enumeration of authors and titles has been avoided, and the student has been led to concentrate his attention upon a comparatively small number of authors of the first importance.

Like its predecessor this book aims to treat the history of English literature in its broad relations to the social, religious, and political history of England, and of Europe; to make the student realize that literature is a vital and significant part of a nation's history, and one of the most intimate revelations of the national life and aspiration. It tries to show him that the literary history of England is not the record of a meaningless and fortuitous succession of men and events, but rather a continuous and fascinating story, in which each age is largely the product of those that have gone before it, and in which the present is in a real and apparent way the daughter of the past.

A book of this kind should be clear, brief, and accurate, but even this is not enough. It should aim above all to

Loss of Normandy by King John of England, 1204.
Hundred Years' War between England and France,

1338-1453.
Literature during this period was written in Latin,

French, and English. A. LATIN. 1. Florence of Worcester and William of Malmesbury,

early Latin chroniclers (first half of XII century). 2. Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of

Britain, in Latin, introduces Celtic legend into

Norman and English literature (1147).
3. Matthew Paris, a later Latin Chronicler, died 1259.
B. FRENCH.
Romances.

a. Song of Roland.

b. Arthurian Romances.
C. English.

1. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle continued to 1154.
2. English begins to gain ground in the 13th century.

a. Layamon's Brut about (1205).
b. French romances appear in English (13th

and 14th centuries).
c. English Songs.

d. Miracle Plays.
3. Triumph of English in the 14th century.

a. Wyclif (about 1324-1384).
b. Gower (1330-1408).
c. Langland (about 1332–1400).
d. Chaucer (about 1340-1400).

II. PERIOD OF THE RENAISSANCE IN ENGLAND,

1400-1600.

1. The Revival of Learning.

Foreign and Civil Wars, 1400–1485.
During this period the Renaissance slowly enters

England; and at its close, with the accession of
Henry VII (1485) and the end of the Wars of the
Roses, its progress becomes more rapid.

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