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ush yr wunding in Latin, because, as

"My murtaut whipped me very well.

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and the cruel sport known as bull-running was suppressed (1788). Individuals and committees examined the condition of the jails and tried to relieve the unspeakable sufferings of the captives. Statesmen and journalists labored for the abolition of slavery. The criminal was no longer dragged through crowded London streets to be hanged at Tyburn, a holiday spectacle to jeering or admiring throngs; the rigors of the code which condemned wretches to death for a trifling theft were gradually softened. So, in these and countless other ways, the social revulsion against brutality and violence which marked the rise of a new England unmistakably declared itself.

Walpole and Pitt. - In the spirit of politics, too, we note a great change. This is evident in the striking contrast between the administration of ROBERT WALPOLE (1721-1742) and that of WILLIAM PITT (1757-1761). During the former, in an interval of profound peace, England had devoted herself to the development of trade and the business of money-making: the merchant gained in social position, and wealth rapidly increased. Walpole, the guiding spirit of this prosperous period, was the embodiment of its prosaic and mercantile character. Shrewd and narrow-minded, he had great business ability, but was incapable of approaching life from its ideal or imaginative side. Openly corrupt in his political methods, he declared that men would come out of their rhapsodies about patriotism, and grow wiser. Such traits are characteristic of early eighteenthcentury England. But, as we advance toward the middle of the century, those higher impulses which were manifesting themselves in so many ways were at work in politics also. By 1757, William Pitt, the animating spirit of the so-called Patriot party, was virtually at

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