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right. He took a deep interest in the training of children, and he spent a large part of his fortune in the establishment of a free school in London, the Grammar School of St. Paul's.

More went to London also, where he studied law, and soon became prominent as a statesman. In 1529 he was made Lord Chancellor, but in 1535 he lost the King's favor through his fearless adherence to his own convictions, and was shortly after beheaded. He went to his death with cheerful courage, one of the noblest victims of royal tyranny and injustice.

The Oxford reformers, with the exception of Erasmus, made few important or lasting contributions to literature; their greatest work was done in other ways. More, however, wrote several books, one of which, at least, deserves to be generally read and remembered. This book, The Utopia, is a description of an imaginary island of that name, and an account of its people, its laws, and customs. In 1516 when More wrote his Utopia, earnest men must have often thought with wonder and interest of that new world beyond the sea, which the discoveries of Columbus and his successors had so recently brought to light. Explorers had done little more than skirt the edge of those strange lands, and the wisest man could only imagine what lay beyond. Now More, like Colet and other thoughtful men, saw many evils in the world about him. He meditated upon the enormous power of money, and the wide difference between the lives of rich and poor. He thought that the English law, which at that time made robbery and other crimes punishable with death, was both cruel and unwise. And so, thinking how such things might be remedied, he imagined the isle of Utopia (or nowhere, as the word means) lying far off in that undis

covered west, somewhere between Brazil and India, and "South of the line Equinoctial,” in which society should be organized in a different and a better way. He tried to show what the world ought to be, but he adds, “I needs confess and grant that many things be in the Utopia made public, which in our cities I may rather wish for than hope after.” In Utopia there is no poverty, for all things are owned in common.

No one is punished or persecuted on account of his religious belief. No one is permitted to be idle, and no one is forced to work too much, but each does his fair share, and so there is enough for all. The Utopia was composed in Latin, but it was early translated into English and took its place as an English classic. Many of More's ideas may seem mere idle fancies, indeed we have come to speak of ideas too perfect to be realized as utopian, — but he also pictures many improvements that have actually been put in practice.

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IMPORTANT DATES FRANCIS PETRARCH, the first of the humanists

1304-1374 CHRYSOLORAS teaches Greek in Italy

1395 Rise of painting, architecture, sculpture, etc., in Italy under Nicola PISANO, FRA ANGELICO, and others in the

13th, 14th, and 15th Cent. Rise of oil-painting in Holland under HUBERT and JAN VAN Eyck in the ....

14th and 15th Cent. INVENTION OF PRINTING


1453 After the fall of the city Greek scholars take refuge in Italy. REBUILDING OF ST. PETER's begun at Rome

1450 COSMO DE MEDICI, patron of art and learning at Florence 1389–1464 LORENZO DE MEDICI, dominant at Florence: under him revival of art and letters

1469–1492 Great age of Italian art under LEONARDO DA VINCI, Titian, RAPHAEL, MICHAEL ANGELO, and others in

latter 15th and early 16th Cent.

Diaz discovers the Cape of Good Hope

1486 COLUMBUS discovers America

1492 Voyage of John and SEBASTIAN Cabor to North America. 1497 VASCO DA GAMA discovers way to India by sea

1498 LUTHER protests against the sale of INDULGENCES


1521 COPERNICUS publishes his astronomical theory

1543 Followers of Chaucer in England. THOMAS OCCLEVE

1370?-1450? John LYDGATE

1370?–1451? Followers of Chaucer in Scotland. KING JAMES I OF SCOTLAND


1425?-1506? WILLIAM DUNBAR

1460?–1520? Popular Ballads, Miracle Plays, and Songs. WILLIAM CAXTON brings printing to England

1476? SIR THOMAS MALORY's Morte d'Arthur (printed)

1485 Hundred Years' War, a series of wars between

1337-1453 Wars of the Roses

.about 1455–1485 ACCESSION OF HENRY VII.

1485 GROCYN and LINACRE teach Greek at Oxford .

1491-1493 COLET, MORE, AND ERASMUS at Oxford .




We have seen how the "new learning ” definitely entered England through the Universities, we must now trace the progress of the Renaissance in England from the beginning of Henry VIII's reign to the middle of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when the stimulating and varied experiences of the nation found their greatest utterances through literature. We shall see how, as the sixteenth century advanced, the new ideas became more and more widely spread until they reached people of almost every class, and how the whole nation was affected by the vital changes which were taking place in the religious as well as in the intellectual life of Europe during this time.

Henry VIII and His Court. — The reign of Henry VIII (1509–1547) was not a great literary era, like the age of Queen Elizabeth, Queen Anne, or Queen Victoria. There were able and good men in King Henry's time, like More and Colet, strong, masterful men, like the famous Cardinal Wolsey, or the King himself, but there were no writers of commanding genius, no original literary works of the highest kind.

Yet these thirty-eight years of Henry's reign had a very important influence on the future. New methods and new ideas came into literature, a great change was made in the position of the Church, and in many ways England was moving toward the greatest literary era in her history.

To some extent this movement was helped forward by the character of the King. In many ways Henry VIII resembles some powerful prince or noble of Renaissance Italy. When he came to the throne, he was young, handsome, rich, expert in manly and martial exercises, high-spirited, and enormously popular. He was learned, too, above the other princes of his time: he loved poetry and music, and he even wrote songs himself. He loved beauty, color, and magnificent entertainments, and his Court was one of the most brilliant in Europe. In his splendid palace at Whitehall, a little beyond the limits of old London, the King had gathered pictures by Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, Holbein, and other master-painters of that great age of art. All this was significant of the coming of a new age. Henry VII saved, Henry VIII spent; and as we read of the fantastic pageants, the sumptuous appointments, the costly retinue, and the elaborate ceremonial of the younger Henry's Court, we feel that something, at least, of the warm life and vivid color of the Italian Renaissance had found an entrance into England.

The Renaissance in Literature: Wyatt and Surrey. — This changed spirit of the English Court did not show itself in outward splendor only; it showed itself in literature also. Throughout the Tudor period, the English were urged forward by a desire to learn from the Continental nations, and they appear to have known instinctively that of all countries Italy was the one best fitted to meet their needs. And so, just as Grocyn and his fellow-students had gone to Italy in search of new ideas in scholarship, English versifiers began to study Petrarch, Dante, and other Italian poets, and to make verses in imitation of these foreign models. Two noblemen of Henry VIII's Court, Sir Thomas WYATT (1503-1542),

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