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JAHNCAN'S

ARTISTIC WOOD FINISHES

JUIIIUN

Manufactured Under

Ideal Working Conditions

1st A Liberal Wage Scale has always prevailed at the Johnson factories, and for the past four years the profits of the business have been shared by the employees.

2nd-An Eight-Hour Work Day has been in force for many years-in fact, S. C. Johnson & Son was one of the first manufacturing plants to take this step forward.

3rd-10 Days' Vacation on Full Pay is granted every employee of S. C. Johnson & Son, whether they work in office or factory, whether on salary, day work or piece work.

4th-Full Pay During Sickness or Accident is allowed the employees of S. C. Johnson & Son. Operations and hospital care are paid in many cases.

5th-Life Insurance Policies up to $1,000 are carried for all employees of S. C. Johnson & Son, the premiums being paid by the Company.

6th-A Liberal Pension System is in force for employees who are unfitted for further active work after twenty years of continuous service.

Johnson's Artistic Wood Finishes are made by careful, expert and contented workmen.

Painters and decorators who are constantly striving for better working conditions should insist upon products which are manufactured in accordance with their ideals. We can continue this policy if you will give us your support. Our quality is of the highest and our prices are right.

Insist on being furnished Johnson's Artistic Wood Finishes.

S. C. JOHNSON & SON

"The Wood Finishing Authorities"

RACINE,

Dept. O J 6

WISCONSIN

Forty Years in Business Without a Labor Dispute

fit.

undoubtedly has a legal right to build its building in whatever manner it sees There is nowhere any question of the legal right of employers to employ non-union workers nor is there any question as to their legal right to use every legitimate means for the prevention of the organization of workers. The whole question at issue is one of moral right and not of legal right.

The United States Chamber of Commerce is actuated by no desire to help the workers of America in its opposition to the trade union movement. The official position of the United States Chamber of Commerce is that it is in favor of what it is pleased to call the open shop.

No one can analyze the term "open shop" without being driven to the conclusion that in reality it is the anti-union shop that is meant. The United States Chamber of Commerce took its present position because it is opposed to the trade union movement and any statement to the contrary is pure sophistry.

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The United States Chamber of Commerce is an organization of financiers and ployers. It is an organization of men who live by making profit. It is an organization composed largely of men who perform no productive service. It is obvious therefore that any position that may be taken by the United States Chamber of Commerce on industrial questions is taken out of a sense of self-interest and that sense of self-interest is one of self-interest in behalf of the making of profit without contributing usefully to the industrial processes of our country.

Seeks to Destroy Wage Earners.

I think no one will be deceived about the United States Chamber of Commerce and its relation to questions involving wage earners. The United States Chamber of Commerce in pursuance of its present attitude toward the relations between employers and workers is animated by a desire to

Foreword:

render the workers as nearly helpless as possible in order that they may be the more easily exploited and in order that they may be less able to command proper wages, proper working conditions and proper hours of labor. The morality of the United States Chamber of Commerce in thus seeking to despoil the wage earners and to demolish their organizations in order to render them the more easily despoiled is a morality which the labor movement can look upon only with condemnation and which it can view only as subversive of the best interests of our country.

The United States Chamber of Commerce may rest assured that the trade union movement will use every fair, legitimate and honorable means to see to it that union workers are employed upon the new building in Washington in order that the conditions of work on that building, the standard of wages and the hours of work may be such as will not undermine the standards that have been established by intelligent organized workers throughout the United States.

The United States Chamber of Commerce is organized to protect and promote the interest of capitalists, employers and exploiters. The American Federation of Labor is organized to protect and promote the interests of working men and women.

There is honorable and legitimate work for the United States Chamber of Commerce to perform but that work does not lie in the direction of destroying the all too meager standards of living of the working people who form the basis of our civilization and the great strength of our country. It is as fitting for the United States Chamber of Commerce to pretend a pious solicitude for the welfare of the workers and to pretend to determine what are just and proper standards for workers as it would have been for the commander of the late German navy to moralize upon justice and righteousness in the conduct of submarine warfare.

SPRAY PAINTING MACHINE PERIL

Lead Poisoning Probable Despite Precautions

By N. C. Sharpe, Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Toronto. (A Digest.)

Painters have recognized the danger to their health in the use of the spray-painting machine. The concerns who manufacture the machines, realizing the danger from the spread of the poisonous spray, advertise the machines showing them equipped with cabinets, ventilating fans, helmets and masks. We now have scientific evidence, the result of an investigation made by the Division of Industrial Hygiene for Ontario, Canada, and the Committee on Industrial Fatigue, University of Toronto. This is published in the

April issue of the Journal of Industrial Hygiene, Harvard Medical School. The report points out that no matter what precautions are taken in spraying lead paint over large surfaces, the man using the machine, is almost certain to get lead poisoning. Although the article is written in scientific language, it should be read by every painter in the Brotherhood. The Workers' Health Bureau has therefore asked Dr. Emery R. Hayhurst, one of the leading industrial health experts of the country and a member of the Bureau's Advisory Committee, to

make a summary of this article for the Painters' Journal. The summary follows:

Why Paint Is Harmful.

Paint consists of pigment, linseed oil, turpentine, thinners and driers. Either pigment or liquid may be poisonous. Reports seem to show that the only pigment commonly used which is poisonous, is lead. The British Departmental Committee recommends a law prohibiting the use of paint material which contains more than five per cent of its dry weight of a soluble lead compound. The same committee emphasizes the fact that the center of danger in all lead industries is the dust produced.

Lead gets into the body in two ways: (a) Through the breathing of lead dust; (b) Through the digestive system.

As a matter of fact experiments show that 70 per cent of inhaled lead dust reaches the digestive system and only 12 per cent reaches the lungs. In other words, that which is inhaled is caught in the rear of the mouth, nose and throat and is swallowed. One investigator shows that if amounts are taken in which are too small to cause any symptoms, they nevertheless undermine health so that the worker may succumb to a dose of lead which is insufficient to produce symptoms in a normal individual.

Spray Painting of Walls and Ceilings. When spray-painting machines are used in the painting of walls and ceilings, partial protection may be had by the use of masks and by the use of an extension tube to the spray nozzle at least 10 feet from the operator. For spraying small articles, an exhaust system inside of a hood is practical. The investigator had spray painting done for three days in a typical room with a paint composed of 60 per cent white lead mixed in nearly equal parts of linseed oil and turpentine. This mixture was diluted with benzine to the necessary thinness for spray painting. The distribution of the spray was determined by placing little china plates near the work. There was no direct draft to carry away the fumes and a mist could easily be seen 10 feet or more to the side. While doing the work the operator and the assistant had slight choking sensations. Shoes and clothing showed a fine coating of paint and the edges of the nostrils were "frosted" with paint. When a mask was worn, its outline could plainly be seen on the face. A lead test of the skin under the mask also showed plain evidence of lead which had succeeded in getting through the mask. Experiments have shown that the breathing of 1/30 of a grain of lead per day (2 mg.) is about the limit which a normal person can inhale without symptoms of poisoning.

In the case of sand-papering coach wheels, about 200 times as much lead was found in the air as would produce lead poisoning during an 8-hour working day (according to Legge). Kaup of Vienna also found from 2 to 50 times as much lead as would pro

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duce poisoning. In the present investigator's experiments the air was found to contain from 27 to 83 times as much lead as would produce poisoning.

The china plates, exposed for half hour periods during the spraying, showed that lead was deposited 11 feet to the right of the operator and 3 feet behind him. Spraying Small Articles With Cabinet or Box Protection.

In the spray painting of small objects in a cabinet, no lead was found in the air samples collected outside the cabinet.

As pointed out by Albaugh, to be safe, spray cabinets or boxes must have:

(a) Sufficient exhaust;

(b) Cabinet not too shallow;

(c) Exhaust correctly located in cabinet; (d) Fan not too far from box;

(e) Exhaust opening large enough and not blocked up;

(f) Cabinet of proper shape to allow even draft;

(g) Workers must not spray at right angles so that spray will not roll back;

(h) Object must not be too large or the exhaust will not carry off the spray;

(i) Sprayer must always be protected by a cabinet;

(j) The worker must keep out of the cabinet;

(k) Workers with poor eyesight may get too close to the work and so breathe in the spray;

(1) Poor lighting may make work dangerous, as workers get too close to work.

Masks No Protection.

Various masks were tested to see how much protection they give. It was found that fine wire gauze masks gave no protec tion whatever. A mask of gauze and cotton as thick as could be worn with some com. fort, reduced the lead taken in to about 10 per cent. But this is not sufficient for safety. Gauze masks containing charcoal were found to have no advantage over the ordinary gauze and cotton masks. Also any mask will become useless after it is covered with a coat of paint. Gauze and cotton masks moistened with a solution of sodium sulphide wear a little better but are still dangerous. These masks also need to be moistened every 15 to 20 minutes. In conclusion, it would appear that it is not possible for a workman to get enough air through a really effective mask of this type with any degree of comfort.

Breathing of Turpentine, Benzine and Other Fumes.

The painter using a spraying machine also runs a great risk from breathing in fumes of turpentine, benzine, benzole and possibly linseed oil and driers.

Few painters know that kidney trouble or chronic bronchitis can be traced to the turpentine with which they work. The noted has English authority, Goadby, proven

(Continued on page 280)

KANSAS PLAN DEFIES U. S. PRINCIPLES

Seeks to Undermine Basic American Freedom

By MATTHEW WOLL
Vice-President, American Federation of Labor.

Brief submitted at the hearing before the New York State Legislature on the Duell-Miller Industrial Court Bill, March 1, 1922, and reproduced from The American Federationist for May.

N the earlier centuries the workers were compelled to work at the will or caprice of their masters. It was they who owned their bodies and their labor power. Later the barbarian invasions overturned the social, economic and political institutions of Europe and feudalism became the established order. Although the workers' bodies were made free the over-lord retained an ownership in their labor power.

When the Black Death overtook the peoples of Europe the feudal regulations of labor

were broken down and immediately thereafter followed a system of state regulation. This, however, was never effective and completely failed under the changes set up by the coming of the factory system with its individual relationship between employers and employed and the recognition of the right to freedom of contract on the part of the workers co-equal with that of employers.

Thus the progressive development, through the many centuries of the workers, from a condition of status to that of contractual relationship, presents a dramatic and tragic current of events.

This struggle of the workers in America is duplicated and differs in form only. It dates from the early colonial days when involuntary servitude, compulsory labor, was recognized, to the time of the Declaration of Independence, followed by the Civil War when slavery of the black man was removed and later when the Seamen's Act became law and which destroyed the last vestige of slavery, of involuntary servitude, of compulsory labor, at least insofar as our national government was concerned.

Freedom of contract implies equality of opportunity to those entering into a contractual relationship. With the development and ascendency of the factory system of production and of corporate wealth and influence there followed the need of organization on the part of the workers and the necessity for collectively bargaining for the terms and conditions under which the workers would enter into the service of others.

In no other way could this equality of opportunity be successfully maintained. By no other process could the freedom of con

tract be safeguarded or be prevented from becoming merely a different form of enslavement of the worker. Freedom of contract and equality of opportunity require that the workers shall have the right, likewise, to end their employment collectively, or to decline a renewal of the contract for their services if the consideration tendered is distasteful or unsatisfactory.

To hold that the workers are required to enter the service of others or to remain in the service of others excepting by the voluntary action or acquiescence of themselve is to deny them freedom of contract and of equal opportunity.

A relationship not founded on freedon contract but where one is forced to submit to the will of an ther is recognized in law, as it is in fact, as involuntary servitude compulsory labor.

Under our constitutional form of gover ment involuntary servitude is prohibited by the 13th amendment excepting for punish ment of crime. The United States Supre Court has held in the case of Baley vs Alabama, that the 13th amendment does n permit slavery or inv luntary servitude t be established or maintained through th operation of the criminal law by making i a crime to refuse to submit to the one o to render the service which would constitute the other. In other words, the United States Supreme Court has held rightfully that wha the state may not do directly it may not do indirectly. Because the state can not com pel the worker individually or collectively to give service to another therefore the state can not compel the workers to remain in the employ of others merely by declaring that it is a crime or misdemeanor for work ers to cease their employment collectively The United States Supreme Court has justly declared: "There is no more important concern than to safeguard the freedom of labor upon which alone can enduring prosperity be based."

Despite the struggle of the workers for centuries for equal rights and equal opportunities, contrary to the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution and disregardful of the decisions of the United States Supreme Court, that there is no more important concern than to safeguard the freedom of the workers, we find a constant and persistent, subtle and cunning effort being made again to deprive the workers of their rights and liberties by the proposed enactment of compulsory arbitration laws and the establishment of industrial courts, such as we now find in the State of Kansas. All of these attempts are predicated on the assumption of protecting the public

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