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so that when he is pleasant upon any of them, all his family are in a good humour, and none so much as the person whom he diverts himself with :3 on the contrary,4 if he coughs, or betrays any infirmity of old age, it is easy for a stander-by5 to observe a secret concern in the looks of all his servants. My worthy friend has put me under the particular
ở of his butler, who is a very prudent man, and, as well as the rest of his fellow-servants,? wonderfully desirous of pleasing me, because they have often heard their master talk of me as of his particular friend.-(ADDISON, Spectator.)
COWPER TO MR. J. NEWTON.
ON SOME PLEASURES IN RURAL LIFE,
MY DEAR FRIEND, FOLLOWING your good example, I lay before me a sheet of my largest paper. It was this moment fair and unblemished, but I have begun to blot it, and having begun, am not likely to cease till I have 10 spoiled it. I have sent you many a sheet that in my judgment of it 11 has
cilie) tous les cours. Whenever it would no longer be optional to the two substantives, being nearly use de qui as well as duquel. (See synonymous, thus follow each other page 11, note 8.) immediately, the verb, and also au contraire. the adjective, must be in the sin
5 d un spectateur. gular.
6 m'a confié tout particulièrei quand il plaisante (or, badine) ment aux soins (or, à la garde). l'un ou l'autre.
7 le reste des domestiques. 2 est de. See page 41, note ? 8 Elie était tout à l'heure (or, il
3 et plus que le reste celui même n'y a qu'un moment) bien vlanche sur le compte duquel (or de qui) il et sans tache aucune (or, bien se divertit. See page 1, note 8. blanche et bien propre, or nette). The pronoun duquel is here used e il n'est pas probable que je, with instead of dont, as the word (celui) the subjunctive. to which that pronoun relates is avant de l'avoir, &c. See
page followed by a preposition (sur). 7, note?; and page 32, note of Besides, if we were speaking bere 11 mainte feuille qui, à mon avis of a thing, instead of a person, (or, à mon yré-à mon sens, &c.).
been very unworthy of your acceptance, but my conscience was in some measure2 satisfied by reflecting, that if it were good for4 nothing, at the same time it cost you nothing, except the trouble of reading it. But the case is altered now.6 You must pay a solid price for frothy matter ;7 and though I do not absolutely pick your pocket, yet you lose your money, and, as the saying is, are never the wiser.9
My green-house is never so pleasant as when we are just on the point of being turned out of it.10 The gentleness of the autumnal suns, and the calmness of this latter season, make it 11
much more agreeable retreat than we ever find it 12 in the summer; when 13 the winds being generally brisk,14 we cannot cool it by admitting15 a sufficient quantity of air, without being at the same time, incommoded by it.16 But now I sit with all the windows and the door wide open, 17 and am 18 regaled with 19 the
i d'être reçue de vous.
12 See page 29, note 22. 27, note 13.
13 See page 18, note 19. We 2 jusqu'à un certain point; or, might here translate elegantly en quelque manière (or, sorte—de- 'when' by car alors. gré).
14 "brisk,' assez forts ; or, assez par la réflexion.
agités. 4 d.
en laissant entrer. 5 d'autre part; or, elle ne .... 16 sans en être .. . &c. non plus.
17 je reste assis, les fenêtres et la 6 Mais à présent les choses sont porté toutes grandes ouvertes. Alchangées (or, le cas n'est plus le though tout, before an adjective or même).-See page 27, note 13. participle, when it is an adverb
?, Il vous faut payer en espèces (used for tout à fait, quite'), is in de la viande creuse.
its nature an invariable word, yet it 8 et quoique je ne vous vole pas agrees, for the sake of euphonydans toute la force du terme. in the feminine singular and plural,
9 votre argent ne laisse pas but never in the masculine plural, d'être (or, que d'être) déboursé, et -if the adjective or participle, vous n'en êtes pas (or, sans que vous being feminine, begins with a conen soyez) plus avancé; or, simply, sonant or an aspirate h. vous perdez votre argent, rien de 18 et je suis. "Notice the repet:plus. This expression, ne pas lais- tion of the pronoun, here also, beser de (or, que de), followed by a sides the cases we have seen above, verb in the infinitive, denotes an page 30, note 15, and page 31, action done, or a state undergone, note The present instance notwithstanding what has been is similar to that of page 23, stated above.
note 9. 10 d'en être chassés. 11
scent of every flower, in a garden as full of flowers as I have known how to make it. We keep no bees ;? but if I lived in a hive, I should hardly hear more 3 of their music. All the bees in the4 neighbourhood resort to a bed5 of mignonette opposite to the window, and pay me for the honey they get out of it, by? a hum, which, though rathers monotonous, is as agreeable to my ear 9 as the whistling of my linnets. All the sounds that Nature utters 10
are delightful, at least in this country.11 I should not perhaps find the roaring of lions in Africa, or of bears in Russia, very pleasing ; 12 but I know no beast 13 in England whose voice I do not account musical,14 save and except 15 always the braying of an ass. The notes of all our birds and fowls please me, without one exception.16 I should not indeed think 17 of keeping a goose in a cage, su le rendre.
first person singular and plural : ? Nous n'avons point d'abeilles. thus we say, likewise, nous ne sa
3 davantage. See page 8, note chons, &c., for &c. &c. 8. But more music' would be 14 dont je ne trenne la voix méloplus de musique, because 'more,' dieuse (or, pour mélodieuse). Notice here, would no longer be taken here, first, the use of the subabsolutely.
junctive (tienne) after a verb conun carrémune plate-bande, &c. jugated negatively. (Je ne sache 6_“for' is not to be translated. point); secondly, the suppression In French, the reverse of the Eng- of the negation (pas, or point) lish takes place here: it is the (though ne shows the sentence to thing bought which is the direct be negative) in this latter part of regimen, and the person paid is the proposition, for the sake of the indirect regimen. Thus, me elegance, as it is already expressed (dative) payent (or, paient) le miel in the former-(see for a similar (accusative) qu'elles en tirent. example, page 25, note 8); and, avec; or, de.
thirdly, the position of the thing assez ; or, un peu.
possessed (voix) after the verb, as 9 m'est aussi agréable à enten- it is here the object of the verb, dre; or, simply, m'est aussi agré- whereas if it was the subject of the able, as the word entendre inevi. verb, 't would then precede it, in tably occurs just below.
French, as it always does in Engfait entendre.
lish. ce pays-ci.
15 Simply, excepté; or, sauf. 12 Je ne trouverais peut-être pas me plaisent toutes sans très gai .... &c.
ception. 13"Je ne sache point d'animal (or, 17 Il est vrai que (or, A la vérité) aucun animal). * Je ne sache is fre. je n'aurais jamais dans l'idée, or, quently used, in French, with pas, il est vrai qu'il ne me viendrait point, rien, or personne, for Je jamais à l'esprit. ne sais, or, je ne connais, pas, &c. 18 de tenir (or, simply, de mettre) This Gallicism is only used in the une oie en cage.
that I might hang him up in the parlour for the sake of his melody, but a goose upon a common, or in a farmyard, is no bad performer ; 4 and as tos insects, if the black beetle, and beetles indeed of all hues, will keep out of my way, I have no objection to any of the rest ; 8 on the contrary, in whatever key they? sing, from the gnat's fine treble to the bass of the humble-bee, I admire them all. Seriously, however, it strikes me as a very observable instance of providential kindness to man, that' such an exact accord has been contrived 10 between his ear and the sounds with which,11 at least in a rural situation, it is almost every moment visited. All the world is sensible of 12 the uncomfortable effect that certain sounds have upon the nerves, and consequently upon the spirits ; 13 and if a sinful world 14 had been filled with such as would have curdled 15 the blood, and have made 16 the sense of hearing a perpetual inconvenience, I do not know that 17 we should have a right to complain. But now the fields, the woods, the gardens, have each their concert, and the ear of man is
1 afin de. See page 7, note ?. ménagé. We must here keep the
* par godt pour; or, pour jouir passive, as in English, instead of de ; or, simply, à cause de; or, using on with the active voice, pour.
for a very obvious reason. See 3 dans la campagne.
page 8, notes 6 and 10. $ est parfaitement en situation. par lesquels. See page 11, 5 et quant aux.
note 8, and page 8, note 9. 6 si l'escarbot et ceux de son 12 Personne au monde n'ignore. espèce de toutes les couleurs, veulent 13 sur le moral. bien éviter de se trouver sur mon ce monde corrompu; or, ce chemin-passage-(or, veulent bien monde de pécheurs. se tenir à l'écart), aucun des autres 15 de sons à cailler (or, à faire ne m'est désagréable.
tourner). ? quelque clef qu'ils; with the 16 et à rendre. subjunctive.
17 je ne sais si, with the condi. 8 from,' depuis; 'treble, des- tional; or, je ne sache pas qu', sus (masc.); 'to,' jusqu'a.
with the imperfect of the subjuncJe crois découvrir (page 7, tive; or, je doute que, with ditto. note) un exemple très remarqua- —Notice here, that it is more eleble de la bonté de la Providence gant, when conjugating savoir neenvers l'homme, dans ce fait, que gatively, to omit pas or point, Whenever 'to' expresses certain and only use the particle ne; exrelations of behaviour, &c., and cept in the case of emphasis, when can be turned by towards,' always we should say, e.9:, je ne sais pas, translate it into French by envers. instead of je ne sais, as above.
10 un accord aussi parfait a été
for ever? regaled by creatures who seem only to please themselves. Even the ears that are deaf to the Gospel are continually entertained, though without knowing it, by sounds for which they are solely indebted to its author.4 There is, somewhere in infinite space, a world, that does not roll within the precincts of mercy; and as it is reasonable, and even scriptural,5 to suppose, that there is music in heaven, in those dismal regions 6 perhaps the reverse of it is found ;' tones so dismal, as to make woe itself more insupportable, and to acuminate even despair: But my paper admonishes me in good time to draw the reins, 10 and to check the descent of my fancy into deeps, 11 with which she is but too familiar. 12
THE COMPARISON OF WATCHES.
WHEN Griselda thought 13 that her husband had long enough 14 enjoyed his new existence, and that there was danger of his forgetting15 the taste of sorrow, she changed her tone. 16 One day, when he had not returned home exactly at the appointed minute,17 she received him with a frown
1 constamment; or, sans cesse. 9 aiguiser jusqu'au.
uniquement se donner à elles- 10 à temps (or, a point-à propos) mêmes du plaisir.
de serrer les rênes. quoique à leur insu.
11 dans des profondeurs.--'with,' 4 dont ils sont redevables exclu- avec; 'which: see page 36, note li. sivement à son auteur. This use 12 See page 5, note 12. of the possessive son is the second 13 See page 1, note 3. and last exception (see page 30, 14 assez longtemps. note 9) to the rule given, page 18,
15 il était (or, il y avait) à crainnote as the object possessed dre qu'il n'oubliat. See page 21, (auteur) is here what the French note 3, and notice likewise the use call the complement of a prepo- of ne and the subjunctive with sition-the prep. d.
craindre; this verb, however, re5 suivant (or, selon) l’Écriture; jects ne when conjugated negaor, conforme à l'Ecriture sainte. tively. séjour.
16 See page 2, note 7. ? Simply, le contraire. is 17 qu'il (page 18, note 10) n'était found: see page 8, note 6; and pas rentré chez lui (or, au logis)
à la minute (or, à point nommé). lugubres au point de rendre.
page 32, note