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seemed different, while their hatred and ambition were the same. Cæsar, who was ever foremost in offering battle, led out his army to meet the enemy, but Pompey, either suspecting the 3 troops or dreading the event, kept his advantageous situation, at the foot of the hill near which he was posted. 4 Cæsar, unwilling to attack him at a5 disadvantage, resolved to decamp the next day, hoping to weary out his antagonist, who was not a match for him in sustaining the fatigues of duty. Accordingly, the order for marching was given, and the tents struck, when word was brought him, that Pompey's army had now quitted their entrenchments, and advanced farther into the plain than usual ; 10 so that he might engage them at less disadvantage. Úpon this, he caused his troops to halt, 11 and with a countenance of joy informed them that the happy time was at last come which they had so long wished for,12 and which was to crown their glory, and terminate their fatigues. He drew up his troops in order,

13 and advanced towards the place of battle.14

His forces did not amount to half those of Pompey; the army of the one 15 was about 16 forty-five

1 qui prenait toujours l'initiative ellipsis as in the text (tents struck). du combat ; or, more literally, qui 8**They (On) had already struck était toujours le premier à livrer the tents plié les tentesor, levé (or, donner) bataille.

le camp).' We also say, planter le Simplý, 'marched to the piquet (or, asseoir un camp), 'to enemies.'

pitch a camp—to camp ;' dresser 3 soit qu'il ne se fiât pas d (or, une tente, 'to pitch a tent; and qu'il doutât de) ses.

lever le piquet (i. e., décamper), 4 You may here translate lite- 'to decamp.' rally, or use the military expres- 9 when he heard,'—to avoid the sion, se couvrir d'un bois, d'une ungrammatical repetition of on rivière, d'une colline,—to postone- (see page 167, note 4). self near a wood, or a river, or a lu See page 22, note 7:—' usual,' hill, so as not to be easily attacked here, de coutume; or, à l'ordinaire. on that side).

11 See page 9, note , and page followed by no article. 108, note :-'to balt' (neuter), qui n'était pas de même force faire halte.

12 See p. 38, n.

5. que lui a (or, qui n'était

pas capa

13 'to draw up one's troops in ble au même degré que lui de-or, order,' ranger ses troupes en baagain, qui le lui cédait quand il taille (or, en ordre de bataille); or, s'agissait de) supporter les fatigues simply, former sa bataille. de la guerre (or, d'une campagne). combat, to avoid repeating ba

7 he gave his orders for march- taille at so short an interval. ing (partir);' and put a full stop 15 celui-ci, or, ce dernier (the here,—to avoid the same vicious latter).

16 of about.'


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thousand foot and seven thousand horse ;1 that of the other, not exceeding twenty-two thousand foot, and about a thousand horse. This disproportion, particularly in the cavalry, had filled Cæsar with apprehensions ; he therefore had, some days before, picked out the strongest and nimblest of his foot-soldiers, and accustomed them to fight between the ranks of his cavalry. By their assistance, his thousand horse was a match for4 Pompey's seven thousand, and had actually got the better in a skirmish that happened between them some days before. Pompey, on the other hand, had a strong expectation? of success ; he boasted that he could put Cæsar's legions to flight, without striking a single blow;9 presuming that, as soon as the armies formed,10 his cavalry, on which he placed his greatest expectations, 11 would outflank and surround the enemy.

In this disposition 12 Pompey led his troops to battle.

As the armies approached, the two generals went from rank to 13 rank encouraging their men, warming their 14 hopes, and lessening their apprehensions.15

There was no more space between both armies than to give room 16 for fighting: Pompey therefore ordered his men to receive the first shock without moving from their places, expecting the enemy's ranks to be put into disorder.

? 'foot, fantassins, or, hommes sion sans coup férir. d'infanterie, or, again, hommes de 10 would form :'this instance is pied.-horse,' chevaux, or, hommes connected with the rule given at de cavalerie.

“among.' page 52, note ? ; see also page 178, 3. By this means.'

note 8, and page 210, note ? furent à même de tenir (or 11 he chietly (principally) refaire) tête d.-' match,' in this lied' (p. 19, n. 5, and p. 254 n. 1). sense, is variously translated, ac- 12 "It was in this disposition of cording to the phrase: for another mind that.' rendering, see preceding page, en (page 165, note 7). note 6.

14 leur monde, animant les, -SO 5 et avaient effectivement (the as to avoid both the awkward reFrench adjective actuel commonly petition of leurs, and also ammeans “present,' and the adverb biguity. actuellement, 'at present,' 'now') rassurant les esprits.' eu le dessus (or, remporté l'avan- 16 'no more space (or room) than tage).

6 ' had happened.' to give room,' is a shocking redun3 scarcely doubted.'

dancy (see page 60, note 2): turn, 8 See page 7, note ?.

“There was now (ne . .. plus) be9 You may either translate li- tween both armies but just (que terally, or use the made-up expres- tout juste) space enough.'






Cæsar's soldiers were now rushing on with their usual 1 impetuosity, when, perceiving the enemy motionless, they all stopped short, as if by general consent, and halted in the midst of their career. A terrible pause? ensued, in which both armies continued to gaze upon each other with mutual terror and dreadful serenity.3 At length, Cæsar's men having taken4 breath, ran furiously upon the enemy, first discharging their javelins, and then drawing their swords. 5 The same method was observed by Pompey's troops, who as firmly had sustained the attack. His cavalry, also, were ordered to charge at the very onset; which, with the multitude of archers and slingers, soon obliged Cæsar's men to give ground.? Cæsar instantly ordered the six cohorts, that were placed as a reinforcement, to advance, and to strike at the enemy's faces.s This had its 9 desired effect: Pompey's cavalry, that were just before sure of victory, received an immediate check. The 10 unusual method of fighting pursued by the cohorts, their aiming entirely at the visages 11 of the assailants, and the horrible disfiguring wounds they made, 12 all contributed to intimidate so much that, instead of defending their persons, they endeavoured only to save their faces.13 A total rout eusued : they fled to the neighbouring mountains; while the archers and slingers, who were thus abandoned, 14 were cut to pieces. 15 Cæsar now commanded 1 See page 45, note 11.

7 reculer; or, lâcher pied (or, 2 moment de repos ; for the va

le pied). rious ways of rendering the word 8 l'ennemi au visage. ' pause,' in this sense, according the.'

10 This.' to the phrase, see page 67, note", 11 (the stratagem which they and page 151, note 16.

used, of aiming (porter, or diriger) 3 restèrent les yeux fivés l'une their blows only at the visage.' sur l'autre (or, restèrent à se con- See page 21, note 3. templer mutuellement), glacées d'é- 12**the horror of these wounds pouvante (or d'effroi), mais avec which threatened with (de) a une contenance (‘an air,'' a look ') hideous deformity ;' or, the consed'une imposante sérénité.

quences of wounds which disfigured 4 Use reprendre.

them frightfully.'--'all,' tout cela. 5 lancèrent leurs demi-znques

13 Use the plural here (see page (page 4, note 17), et aussitôt inirent 11, notes 12 and 14). l'épée à la main (or, tirèrent who,' &c. ; simply, 'rel'épée).

mained (past part.) alone.' 8 See page 7, note 17.— with,' 15 to cut to pieces,' in a military joint à.

sense, is tailler en pièces.


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the cohorts to pursue their success, and charge Pompey's troops upon the flank;? this charge the enemy withstood 2 for some time with great bravery, till Cæsar brought up 3 his third line, which had not yet engaged.4 Pompey's infantry being thus doubly attacked, in front by fresh troops, and in rear 5 by the victorious cohorts, could no longer resist, but fled to their camp. The flight began among the strangers. Pompey's right wing still valiantly maintained its ground. Cæsar, however, convinced that the victory was certain, with his usual clemency cried out to pursue the strangers, but to spare the Romans; upon which they all laid down their arms, and received quarter. The greatest slaughter was among the auxiliaries, who fled on all sides. The battle had now lasted from break of day till noon : 9 the weather was extremely hot; nevertheless, the conquerors remitted 10 not their ardour, being encouraged by the example of a general who thought his victory incomplete till he should become 11 master of the enemy's camp. Accordingly, marching on foot at their head, he called upon them to follow and strike the decisive blow. The cohorts, which were left to defend the camp,

I charger (or, attaquer) de flanc en queue ; or, par derrière. (or, en flanc); or, prendre en flanc. 6 troupes étrangères (or, curi

2 Use soutenir, and change the liaires). construction thus,

7 tint bon–or, tint ferme-or, se withstood this charge.'

maintint, or, again, fit ferme 3 fit avancer. The verb fit is (faire ferme is a military term here in the preterite of the indi- for 'to keep, stand, or maincative : after jusqu'à ce que ('till, tain one's ground' quelque temps or “until') the subjunctive is used encore, et montra beaucoup de if the action expressed by the courage, second verb is the end to which 8 It should have been, 'to pursue the action expressed by the first only the strangers, and to spare,' tends voluntarily or necessarily &c. : put it so in French. There (as, il restera jusqu'à ce que is no clemency' in pursuing je revienne); whereas the se people: it is true that 'but,' which cond verb is put in the indicative follows, acts somewhat as a corif it expresses an action fortuitous, rective, but this does not prevent unforeseen, and independent of the the idea from being badly prefirst verb (as, “Ces trois grands sented altogether. hommes commencèrent à demeurer 9. It was noon, and the battle dans la terre de Chanaan, mais had lasted (see page 38, note 5) comme des étrangers, jusqu'à ce since the break,' &c. que la faim attira Jacob 10 'to remit,' here, se relâcher de. Égypte.”-BOSSUET). See p. 134, il should have rendered him


the enemy



4 donné. self.'

note 10


for some time made a formidable resistance, particularly a great number of Thracians and other barbarians, who were appointed for that purpose ;1 but nothing could resist the ardour of Cæsar's victorious army; the enemy were at last driven from the 2 trenches, and they all fled to the mountains. Cæsar, seeing the field 3 and camp strewn with his fallen countrymen,4 was strongly affected at the melancholy prospect, and cried out to one that stood near him,5 “They would have it so." 6

Upon entering the camp, every object presented fresh instances of the blind presumption and madness of his adversaries. On all sides were to be seen tents adorned with ivy and myrtle, couches? covered with purple, and sideboards laden with plate. Everything gave proofs of the highest luxury, and seemed rather the preparatives for a banquet, or the rejoicings for a 10 victory, than the dispositions for 11 a battle. A camp so richly furnished might have been able to engage the attention of any troops but Cæsar's; but there was still something to be done,

1 This sentence is awkwardly confusion to be avoided respecting constructed ; put it so in French: these words, vaisselle and 'plate':

- He had to experience (essu yer) vaisselle also means 'plates and for (pendant, in this sense) some dishes' (as, vaisselle de terre, time a vigorous resistance from earthenware, vaisselle de porce(see p. 45, n. 9, and p. 247, n. 3) laine, 'chinaware'); a 'plate,' or the cohorts, which ..:. &c., and small dish to eat out of, is une particularly from a great number assiette, whilst plaque means

&c., who were appointed 'plate' of metal, a 'slab.' In this for that purpose (simply, préposés case, we had better translate, to repour cet effet).'

move all ambiguity (I mean, a 2 repoussé de (or, forcé hors de) confusion between the two kinds of

See page 295, note 4, and vaisselle, viz. the gold and silver leave out 'all.'

plate, on the one hand, and the 3 la plaine.

plates and dishes on the other) 4 ' with (de) the corpses of his we had better translate by vaisselle countrymen ; or, simply, de morts ļor et d'argent : we may fairly (with dead bodies-with dead). use d'or (gold), which is evidently

5 and turning towards one of meant, as well as d'argent, in the those who stood ... cried out.' text, where we find, a little farther 6 Ils l'ont voulu.

on, the words highest luxury,' ? des lits de table (literally, with which words d'argent (silver) “table-beds '), in this sense. alone would hardly correspond. vaisselle, in this sense (i. e.,

9 seemed to announce rather. vaisselle d'or, gold plate, and - for,' de.

10 (after the.' vaisselle d'argent, or, vaisselle plate,

11 than those i.e. 'the pre"silver plate';. There is great paratives'--masc., in French) of.'





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