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byl the title of “Don Christopher Columbus, our Admiral of the Ocean Sea, and Viceroy 2 and Governor of the Islands discovered in the Indies;" at the same time he was promised still further rewards.3 Columbus lost no time in 4 complying with the commands of the sovereigns. He sent a memorandum of the ships, men and munitions5 that would be requisite, and having? made such dispositions at Seville as circumstances permitted, set out on his journey' for Barcelona, taking with him the six Indians, and the various curiosities and productions he had brought from the New World.10

The fame of his discovery had resounded throughout the nation, and as his route lay through 11 several of the finest and most populous provinces of Spain, his journey appeared like the progress of a sovereign.i2 Wherever he passed, 13 the surrounding country poured forth its inhabitants, who lined the road and thronged the villages.14 In the large towns, the streets, windows, and balconies were filled with eager spectators, who rent the air with 16

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page 1, note?

1 portait à l'adresse.

different turn from the English, for 2 l'Océan Atlantique, vice-roi. 'to take,' or 'to carry away,' is

lui promettait en même emporter, when we speak of pertemps pour l'avenir de nouvelles ré- sons, or of objects that we raise compenses. See page 21, note 9. from the ground, whereas if we 4 ne tarda pas d.

do not, emmener is used ; and 5 See page 20, note :1,

the

distinction is made qu'il faudrait.

between apporter and amener, 'to 'taking.' See bring.'

ii la route qu'il devait suivre traà Séville les dispositions que versait. permettaient les circonstances. See 12 on eat dit le voyage d'un soupage 22, note?; also page 14, note verain. ; and page 6, note 3.

13 The imperfect of the indica9 il se mit en route. As the verb tive is to be preferred here to the set out’ is rather far from 'having preterite definite, though the latter made' and 'he sent, it is better would not be incorrect. The imto repeat, in French, the pronoun perfect makes the mind dwell il before se mit.

more on the length and incidents 10 emmenant avec lui les six In- of the journey alluded to.

See diens qui l'avaient suivi en Espagne, page 1, note et prenant aussi les curiosités et les on voyait les habitants des alenproduits divers qu'il avait rap- tours se porter en foule sur ses pas, portés du Nouveau-Monde lors border le chemin et encombrer les de son premier voyage. It is ob- villages. vious that we must use here a

15 de leu

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acclamations. His journey was continually impeded by the multitude pressing to gain a sight of him and of the Indians," who were regarded with as much admiration as if they had been natives 3 of another planet. It was impossible to satisfy the craving curiosity, which assailed himself and his attendants, at every stage, with 6 innumerable questions; popular rumour, as usual, had? exaygerated the truth, and had filled the newly-found & country with all kinds of wonders.

It was about the middle of April that Columbus arrived at Barcelona, where every preparation had been made to give him a solemn and magnificent reception. The beauty and serenity of the weather, in that genial season and favoured climate, 11 contributed to give splendour12 to this memorable ceremony. As he drew near the place, 13 many of the more youthful courtiers and hidalgos of gallant bearing 14 came forth to meet and welcome him.15 His entrance into this noble city 16 has been compared to one of those triumphs which the Romans were accustomed 17 to decree to conquerors. First, were paraded the Indians, painted according to their savage fashion,18 and decorated with tropical feathers, and with their national ornaments of gold ; 19 after these were borne various kinds of live parrots, together with 20 stuffed birds and qui se pressait pour,

plaisirs. 2 le voir lui et les Indiens. The See page 20, note 11. disjunctive pronoun lui serves here 12 See page 16, note 2. re-establish

connexion 13 Lorsqu'il s'approcha du lieu. broken by the intervening verb

l'air noble; or,

à la roir, as the conjunctive pronoun le marche superbe; or, au port fier. must necessarily be placed before 15 allèrent d sa rencontre (or, authe verb which governs it. devant de lui) pour lui faire ac

3 des naturels. See page 16, cueil. See page 20, note 12, and note 14. 4 l'avide curiosité.

page 1, note 3 5 l'accablait lui et sa suite. See grande et belle ville; or, simabove, note 2.

ply, superbe ville. 7 les dires (or, les on dit) popu

17 avaient coutume. laires avaient, comme d'ordinaire. 18 selon l'usage (or, a la façon) des 8 'found,' découvert.

indigènes. 9 l'on avait tout préparé pour

19°Put a full stop here; and, in lui faire. The l which precedes general, make your on, here, is merely euphonic, and short, in French. After these;' prevents a hiatus.

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simply, Ensuite. 10 saison agréable; or, saison des 20 Simply, avec.

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animals1 of unknown species, and rare plants, supposed to be of ? precious qualities : while great care was taken to make a conspicuous display of 4 Indian coronets, bracelets, and other decorations of gold, which might 5 give an idea of the wealth of the newly-discovered regions. After these followed Columbus, on horseback, surrounded by a brilliant cavalcade of Spanish chivalry.. The streets were almost impassable, from the countless multitude ; 6 the windows and balconies were crowded with the fair ;7 the very roofs were covered with spectators. It seemed as if the public eye' could not be sated with 10 gazing on these trophies of an unknown world, or on the remarkable man by whom it had been discovered. There was a sublimity in this event that mingled a solemn feeling with the public joy. It was looked upon as a vast and signal dispensation of Providence in reward for 11 the piety of the monarchs ; and the majestic and venerable appearance of the discoverer,12 so different from the youth and buoyancy that are generally expected from roving enterprise,13 seemed in harmony with the grandeur and dignity of his achievement.

To 15 receive him with suitable pomp and distinction, 1

1 des oiseaux et autres animaux toits qui ne fussent. empaillés.—' species ; plural, in 9 il semblait-see page 17, note 8 French, here.

-(or, on eût dit) que tous ces yeux 2 qu'on supposait avoir ; or, aux- (or, cette multitude d'yeux). quelles on supposait. See page 7, 10 être rassasies - rassasiée (or, note 2.

se rassasier, or se lasser) de. 3 Another full stop after 'qualities :' see page 24, note 19,-En 12 l'heureux navigateur. même temps on eut grand soin. 13 qu'on s'attend généralement à

+ d'exposer à tous les regards. voir dans un aventurier (or, d voir See page 16, note 2

unies à l'esprit d'aventure); or, betqui pussent. The subjunctive ter, que l'on croit généralement in(the mood which expresses doubt, séparables de l'esprit d'aventure. among other things) is here used. The word aventurier, however, is instead of the indicative pouvaient, very frequently used in a bad sense. because an intention only-imply- 11 de l'oeuvre qu'il avait accompli. ing a doubt as to the result-and

15 Afin de. not a positive fact, is stated.

une pompe et une dis6 c'était à peine si l'on pouvait tinction convenables. The article passer (or, circuler) dans les rues, is used here, because the substantant la presse était grande.

tives ‘pomp' and distinction' are 7 le beau sere.

particularised by the epithet 'suit8 les toits mêmes étaient; or, il able ; else none would be used, in n'était-il n'y avait-pas jusqu'aux French, any more than in English,

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the sovereigns had ordered their throne to be placed 1 in public, under a rich canopy of brocade of gold, in a vast and splendid saloon. Here the king and queen awaited his arrival, seated in state, with the prince Juan beside them, and attended by the dignitaries of their court and the principal nobility of Castile, Valencia, Catalonia, and Arragon; 4 all impatient to behold the man who had conferred so incalculable a benefit upon the nation. At length Columbus entered the hall, surrounded by a brilliant crowd of cava-liers, among whom, says Las Casas,* he was conspicuous for his stately and commanding person, which, with his countenarice rendered venerable by his grey hairs, gave him the august appearance of a senator of Rome. A modest smile lighted up his features, showing that he enjoyed the state and glory in which he came ; and certainly nothing could be more deeply moving to a mind inflamed by noble ambition, and conscious of having greatly deserved, than these testimonials of the admiration and gratitude of a nation, or rather of a world. As Columbus approached, the sovereigns rose, 10 as if receivingll a person of the highest rank Bending his knees,12 he requested to kiss their hands ;13 but there was some hesitation on the part of their majesties 1 See page 9, note 6.

8 joint à sa physionomie. 2 'seated in state,' en cérémonie. 9 et sachant avoir beaucoup ayant.

rité. See page 19, note 5, and

page 4 de la Castille, du royaume de 7, note 2. Valence, de la Catalogne et de 10 'approached'... 'rose' l'Aragon (or, du royaume d' Ara- &c. The student must now use gon). Notice this use of the de- the preterite definite, not the imfinite article before names of pro- perfect of the indicative. vinces, or other subdivisions of a comme s'ils eussent reçu. This State, and also the repetition (as second form of the conditional (in mentioned already before) of the avoir and êtrej'eusse and je fusse) preposition before each noun. is also used as a second form of the

procuré à la nation un avan- imperfect of the indicative after si. tage aussi incalculable. See page 12 fléchissant les genoux. When 22, note 1.

the context clearly indicates who 6 il se distinguait (or, il se fai- the possessor is, the French consait remarquer) par. See page 1, sider it superfluous to use a pog.

sessive pronoun, and they only use 7 son maintien noble et impo- the definite article. sant.

13 See page 10, note 10. * The truly Christian Bishop of Chiapa, in Mexico ; born 1474, died 1566.-F. G.

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note 3.

to permit this act of vassalage. Raising him in the most gracious manner, they ordered him to seat himself in their presence ; a rare honoura in this proud and punctilious court.

At the request of their majesties, Columbus now gave an account 4 of the most striking events of his voyage, and a description of 5 the islands which he had discovered. He displayed the specimense he had brought of unknown birds and other animals, of rare plants of medicinal and aromatic virtue: of native gold in dust, in crude masses, or laboured into barbaric ornaments; and, above all, the natives of these countries, who were objects of 8 intense and inexhaustible interest; since there is nothing to man so curious as the varieties of his own species. All these he pronounced mere li harbingers of great discoveries he had yet to make, which would add realms of incalculable wealth to the dominions of their majesties, and whole nations of proselytes to the true faith.

The words 12 of Columbus were listened to 13 with profound emotion 14 by the sovereigns. When he had finished 15 they sank on their knees, 16 and, raising their clasped bands

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ance,

1 L'ayant relevé de.

according to the rule given above, 2 The article 'a' should not be note 7 of page 22. translated : no article is used, in il il déclara que toutes ces merFrench, before a substantive used veilles n'étaient que les. to qualify another, or to qualify a 12 Les paroles. The word parole fact enunciated just before. implies word of mouth, and mot 3 Sur.

generally a word that is written 4 rendit alors compte.

or printed ; mot is the mere sign, et donna une description de; whilst parole refers to the utteror, simply, et décrivit. 6 See page 1, note 8.

13 furent écoutées. A past par? poudre ; poussière is said of ticiple joined with the auxiliary the dust of the earth.

être, 'to be,' agrees with the sub8 who were?. (i. e. 'all that ject ; écoutées is here feminine while'). Imperfect indicative, plural, to agree with paroles. here : see again page 1, note 3; 14 See page 25, note 16. objects of les objets (or, 15 Quand il eut fini. This form, l'objet) d'un See page 25, the compound of the preterite, is

used to indicate that a past fact 9 vif, or grand.

has taken place immediately be10 See page 9, note 4;. 'to fore another, likewise completely man,' pour l'homme, and construct past. the sentence thus, in French :

16 tombèrent à genoux. 'there is, to man, nothing,' &c.,

note 16

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