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ordinate to them.) Great Britain, the largest, and by farthe most important of the British islands, is divided into 3 the kingdoms of England and Scotland; the former occupying its southern, most fruitful, and extensive,4 and the latter its 5 northern, more barren, and smaller portion. After the withdrawal of the Romans6 from Great Britain, these two divisions became separate and independent states, between which the most violent animosities frequently subsisted. In consequence of the marriage of Margaret, daughter of Henry VII. of England, to James IV., king of Scotland, in 1502, James VI., king of Scotland, ascended the English throne upon? the demise of Queen 8 Elizabeth in 1604. But, notwithstanding this union of the crowns, the two kingdoms had distinct and independent legislatures till 1707, when,10 under the auspices of Queen Anne, a legislative union of England and Scotland was completed. 11 In many respects, however, the institutions of the two countries still continue peculiar.12 The common law 13 and the judicial establishments of England differ much from those of Scotland ; the prevailing religion and the

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1 lles qui y sont contiguës et sub- and having happened at a definite ordonnées. 2 de beaucoup: period. See page 1, note 3.

3 est divisée en deux parties, époque à laquelle. The French savoir ; or, simply, comprend. do not use quand for when,' in

4 le premier de ces royaumes en the sense of at which time,' but occupe la partie méridionale, la only in that of ‘at what time?' plus fertile et la plus étendue. (interrog.) and “at the time that.' When speaking of things, not of Sometimes they use que in the persons, the French generally use former acceptation.-Ex. 'ses [Pat. the personal pronoun en (‘of it,' 'of kul's] membres coupés en quartiers them') and the definite article, in- restèrent exposés sur des poteaux stead of the possessive pronouns jusqu'en 1713, qu'Auguste,' &c.-son, sa, ses, leur, leurs.

VOLTAIRE, Hist. de Charles XII., 5 la; en will no longer be ex- Book iii. page 99. London, Bell pressed here, but will be understood and Daldy, 1856. See also my LA elliptically, together with the verb, FONTAINE, page 11, note 10. as it has just been used above. 11 fut accomplie.

6 Après que les Romains se fu- 12 sont encore propres à chacun rent retirés (or, s'en furent allés).

7 monta sur le trône d'Angle- 13 le droit coutumier. 'Law,' in terre d.

the sense of the Latin jus, is, in 8 See page 4, note 2.

French, droit, while loi corre9 eurent, not avaient, this fact sponds to 'law' in the sense of being only as one point in history, the Latin lex.

d'eux.

church establishment? of the former are also materially different? from those of the latter, and the manners and customs 4 of the two countries, though gradually assimilating, still preserve many distinguishing features.—(J. R. M'CULLOCH, Statistical Account of the British Empire.)

DESCRIPTION OF ENGLAND. Few countries exhibit a greater variety of surface than England, or have been more highly favoured by nature. 6

Although,” says Dr. Aikin, “its features are moulded on a comparatively minute scale,? they are marked with all the agreeable interchange 8 which constitutes picturesque beauty. In some parts, plains clothed in the richest verdure, watered by copious streams, and pasturing innumerable cattle,o extend as far as the eye can reach :10 in others, gently rising hills11 and bending vales, fertile in corn, waving with woods,12 and interspersed with flowery meadows, offer the most delightful landscapes of rural opulence and beauty. Some tracts 13 furnish prospects of the more romantic and impressive kind ;14 lofty mountains, craggy rocks, deep dells, narrow ravines, and tumbling torrents : 15 nor are there wanting, as a 16 contrast to those

par toute cette succession agré2 de la première (or, de celle-la) able et alternative de sites variés. diffèrent aussi essentiellement. 9 et nourrissant (or, fournissant

de la dernière ; --- celles de de quoi paître d) d'innombrables celle-ci, would not sound well. bestiaux. 4 les moeurs et coutumes; or, les 10 à perte de vue.

We also say,

que la vue peut s'étendre; but 5 quoique se rapprochant (or, this same verb, s'étendre, coming more strictly according to gram- just before, we cannot use this mar, though not so strictly ac- phrase here, which would do very cording to custom, and by no well in any other case. means elegantly here, quoiqu'elles- 11 des coteaux à pente douce. ilsse rapprochent) graduellement. 12 couverts de bois ondulants (or, The adverb, in French, usually ondoyants). follows the verb, in a simple tense; 13 endroits ; or, parties. in a compound tense, it stands be- 14 qui tiennent davantage du rotween the auxiliary and the par- mantique et du grandiose. ticiple. 6. See page 2, note 13.

· qui se précipitent en rouquoique les accidents de terrain lant ; or, simply, de rapides torrents. ne s'y montrent relativement que 16 rien n'y manque, pas même, dans de petites proportions. coinme.-See page 14, note 13.

i l'église.

8

us et coutumes.

tant

15

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scenes in which every variety of nature is a different charm, the vicissitude of black barren 2 moors and wide inanimated heaths.” Such is 3 a vivid description of the general appearance of 4 England. But the beauty and fertility of the country are not the only things to excite5 admiration. The mildness of the climate, removed alike from the extremes of heat and cold ; the multitude of rivers, their depth, and the facility they 6 afford to internal navigation ; the vast beds of coal and other valuable minerals hid under the surface ; the abundance and excellence of the fish in the rivers and surrounding seas; the extent of sea-coast ;7 the number, capaciousness, and safety, of the ports and bays ; and the favourable situation of the country for commerce; give $ England advantages that are not enjoyed in an equal degree by any other nation.—(J. R. M'CULLOCH, Statistical Account of the British Empire.)

MAHOMET'S MIRACLES.

The votaries of Mahomet are more assured than himself of his miraculous gifts, and their confidence and credulity increase as they are further removed 10 from the time and place 11 of his spiritual exploits. They believe or affirm that trees went forth to meet him ;12 that he was saluted by stones ; 13 that water gushed from his fingers ; that he fed the hungry and the sick, and raised the dead ;14 that a i l'aspect, tour à tour, de.

note 9. 2 Put the two adjectives, in 10 à proportion qu'ils sont plus French, after the substantive, with éloignés. the conjunction et between both. il du temps (or, de l'époque) et du 3 Voila.

lieu. Remember this rule, which 4 l'aspect général de ; or, better, enjoins the repetition of the prepoas aspect occurs just above, le coup sition, and of the article, pronoun, l'oeil général que présente.

&c., before each of the substanqui excitent ; or, susceptibles tives, whatever their number may d'exciter.

5

be. • See page 1, note 8.

12 allaient au-devant de lui. Au7 de littoral.

devant de ; Latin, obviam. 8 tout celu donne d.

13 See page 16, note 2. 9 dont nulle autre nation 14 les faméliques et les malades, et jouit au méme degré. See page 21, ressuscitait les morts,

пе

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beam groaned to him ;' that a camel complained to him ;2 that a shoulder of piutton informed him of its being poisoned ;3 and both animate and inanimate nature were equally subject to this apostle of God. His dream of a nocturnal journey is seriously described as a real and corporeal transaction." A mysterious animal, the Borak, conveyed him from the temple of Mecca 6 to that of Jerusalem ; with his companion Gabriel, he successively ascended the seven heavens, and received and repaid? the salutations of the patriarchs, the prophets, and 'the angels, in their respective mansions. Beyond the seventh heaven, Mahomet alone was permitted to proceed ;9 he passed the veil of unity, approached within two bowshots 10 of the throne, and felt a cold that pierced him to the heart,11 when his shoulder was touched by the hand of God. After a familiar, though important conversation,12 he again descended 13 to Jerusalem, remounted the Borak, returned to Mecca, and performed in the tenth part of a night the journey of many thousand years. 14(GIBBON, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.) i lui fit entendre des gémissements. Caire (Cairo, in Egypt), &c. se plaignit à lui. I shall ex

7 rendit. plain this farther on.

8 demeures. the patriarchs,' 3 lui fit savoir (or, l'avertit; or, &c.; see page 20, note : le prévint) qu'elle était. This Eng- 9 Il fut permis d Mahomet seul lisħ turn, 'my,' 'thy,' 'his,' 'its, ďavancer (or, simply, d'aller) au&c., followed by a present parti- delà, &c. As permettre, as well ciple, is not French; see page 14, as some other verbs, when acnote 7.

tive, does not admit, in French, 4 et les êtres animés, aussi bien of a noun of person for its object que les êtres inanimés, étaient, selon (or accusative), it does not, for an eur. 'Both,' followed by and,' is obvious reason, admit of it either, rendered, in French, the same as when it is passive, for its subject in Latin, by et repeated; but here, (or nominative), and, therefore, we we should have the conjunction must another turn. Ex. et three times, and we must, there- 'You are allowed,' &c., on vous perfore, use another turn. Before met, &c.; or, il vous est permis, &c. nouns, we use tant ... que. Ex. (as, in Latin, tibi permitto, tibi per*Both English and French, tant mittitur). Anglais que Français.

20 s'approcha jusqu'à (or, s'avanun événement réel, un acte coje- ça d) deux portées d'arc. porel.

11 jusqu'au coeur: 6 la Mecque. The definite ar- 12 Remember the general rule ticle is put, exceptionally, before relative to the place of adjectives. the names of some towns; as, le 13 redescendit. Havre, le Mans (in France), le 14 plusieurs milliers d'années.

2

use

was

COLUMBUS AT BARCELONA. The letter of Columbus to the Spanish monarchs, announcing his discovery, had produced the greatest sensation at court. The event it communicated was considered 2 the most extraordinary of their prosperous reign. The sovereigns themselves were for a time dazzled and bewildered by this sudden and easy acquisition of a new empire, of indefinite extent and apparently boundless wealth ;4 and their first idea was 5 to secure it beyond the reach of question or competition. Shortly after his arrival in Seville, Columbus received a letter from them, expressing their great delight, and requesting him to repair immediately to court, to concert plans for a second and more extensive expedition.8

As the summer already advancing, the time favourable for a voyage, they desired him 10 to make any arrangements at Seville, or elsewhere, that might hastenthe expedition, and to inform them by the return of the courier what was necessary to be done on their part.12 This letter was addressed to him i à la cour une très-grande sensa

a good French construction. tion. When a verb has two objects pour se concerter sur (or, pour (régimes) of equal length, or nearly concerter) les plans d'une seconde exso, the direct is placed before the in- pédition plus vaste que la précédente. direct object; but when the two 9 See above, note 7; 'was alobjects are not of the same length, ready advancing,' était déjà assez as is the case here, the shorter avancé. comes first, unless there is am- 10 ils le priaient. The verb biguity to be feared.

prier is here put in the imperfect 2 on considéra l'événement dont indicative, as well as exprimaient, elle faisait part, comme. See page just above, and not in the preterite 8, note 6, and page 1, note 8. definite (see page 1, note 3), as re3 et comme égarés.

ference is made here more directly 4 dont l'étendue était indéfinie et to the contents of the letter, as read dont la richesse paraissait sans by the recipient, than to the act bornes. See page 1, note 3. of writing them on the part of the 5 See page 1, note 3.

senders. 6 de s'en garantir la possession de

11 de faire .

tous les arrangetelle manière qu'ils n'eussent dments propres d håter. See above, craindre aucune contestation ni au- note 7 cune rivalité.

12 de ce qu'il fallait qu'ils fissent 7 reçut d'eux une lettre, ils lui de leur côté. Falloir governs the exprimaient. Always observe, as subjunctive; and fissent is in the a rule, in French, the strictest imperfect of the subjunctive, as conne of ideas : thus, reçut une corresponding to the imperfect of lettre d'eux, où, &c., would not be the indicative fallait.

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