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his bold career through hazards and dangers enough to have stopped a prudent man; but his eyes were always open, and his vigilance never slumbered ; his presence of mind never left him, and he was full of resources in his vigorous understanding and his resolute will. He, who said 4 himself that he was not cruel, who spared the lives of 5 Roman citizens, his enemies, who pardoned 6 his countrymen who would have taken his life," pursued barbarians with unrelenting ferocity. He spared neither age nor sex; he slaughtered men in battle, in flight, and after submission ; he plundered them, he sold them for slaves; he mutilated them; he burnt their houses; he wasted their fields; he left them to perish in the winter, houseless 9 and without food. His most formidable enemy, who was cruel like himself, 10 and,
1.11 as active and as brave, the Gallic chief who, in the seventh year of the war, made a last effort to crush the Roman proconsul, and nobly surrendered to save his countrymen, was thrown into a Roman dungeon, to wait six years for Cæsar's triumph; and then 12 he was put to death.
Such a man, with all his great qualities, ought not to be made the 18 object of vulgar admiration, 14 as he often is by modern writers. He ought to be estimated justly. He was better than many, perhaps than most of his contemporaries; and that is all we can say.15—(GEORGE LONG, Preface to his Edition of the Gallic War.)
I capables d'arrêter.
2 The French construction is, in such cases, he had always the après quoi. eyes open.'
13 être représenté comme un, 3 Le même homme.
14 No article, here, as at page 25, - Translate, 'who has said. note 16; but whilst we say, un 5 fit grâce de la vie d.
objet d'admiration vulgaire, we 6 See page 115, note 7.
should say, l'objet d'une admiration 7 qui en voulaient à ses jours, vulgaire (see page 27, note 8). comme ; without any article.
15 et c'est dire autant qu'on en sans abri; or, sans asile.
THE DEAD ASS.
" And this," said he, putting the remains of a crust into his wallet,1 " and this should have been thy portion,” said he,“ hadst thou been alive to have shared it2 with me.” I thought, by: the accent, it had been 4 an apostrophe to his child ; but 't was 5 to his ass, and to the very ass we had seen dead in the road, which had occasioned La Fleur's misadventure. The man seemed to lament it much ; and it instantly brought into my mind Sancho's lamentation for his; but he did it with more true touches of nature.
The mourner was sitting upon a stone bench at the door, with the ass's pannel and its bridle on one side,11 which he took up from time to time, and laid them down, looked at them, and shook his head.12 He then took his crust of bread out of his wallet again,13 as if to 14 eat it, held it for some time in his hand, then laid it upon the bit of his ass's bridle .... looked wistfully at the little arrangement he had made ..., and then gave a sigh.
The simplicity of his grief drew numbers 16 about him ; and La Fleur amongst the rest, whilst the horses were getting ready; 17 as I continued sitting in the post-chaise, I could see and hear over their heads.
6 et qui.
1 See page 22, note 1.-'re- 13 Ensuite il reprit ... dans son mains ;' use the singular.-'crust,' &c. croûte de pain.
comme pour; 2 Si tu avais vécu pour le par. 15 et poussa ; but we may also tager. 3 d.
16 nombre de gens. The word 5 c'en était une.
nombre, thus used adverbially, for
beaucoup, corresponds to the Eng7 cela.
lish numbers,' or to a number, 8 sur.
in the sense of a great number;' 9 mais cet homme se plaignait but in French, if we prefix the avec des accents plus conformes d la article un to the substantive nombre, nature; or, mais l'autre avait des it has not in that case the sense of traits plus frappants de naturel. a great number,' and it then re10 L'afligé.
quires the adjective grand, thus, 11 Turn, having beside him the un grand nombre, to give it that pannel and the bridle of the ass, meaning. which,' &c.; see page 14, note 5. 17 pendant qu'on préparait (page 12 See page 26, note 12.
8, note 6) les chevaux,
He said he had come last 1 from Spain,? where he had been from the furthest borders 3 of Franconia; and bad got so far on his return home, 4 when his ass died.5 Every one seemed desirous to know what business could have taken so old and poor a man so far a journey from his own home. 6
It had pleased Heaven, he said, to bless him with? three sons, the finest lads in 8 all Germany; but having in one week lost two of the eldest of them by the small-pox, and the youngest falling 10 ill of the same distemper, he was afraid of being bereft of them all; and made a vow, if Heaven would not take him from him also, he would go 11 in gratitude to St. Iago 12 in Spain.
When the mourner got thus far he stopped to pay nature her tribute, 14 and wept bitterly.
He said, Heaven had accepted the conditions ; and that he had set out from his cottage with this poor creature, who had been a patient partner of his journey, that it had eat the same bread with him all the way, and was unto him as a friend.
Everybody who stood about,15 heard the poor fellow with concern. La Fleur offered him money. The mourner said he did not want it.... it was not the value of the ass
13 his story,
i arrivait en dernier lieu. reference to time. Thus, we say,
2 This forms another exception 'I shall start for America in eleven to the rule mentioned page 16, days' (hence), Je partirai pour note 4; see also same page, note 10, l'Amérique dans onze jours; but, and page 17, note 14.
on va maintenant en Amérique en 3 du fin fond.
onze jours, means “people now go 4 et qu'il avait déjà fait tout to America in eleven days' (in cela de chemin pour regagner son eleven days' time), in the sense of,
‘it takes eleven days to accomplish Translate, had died' (see the journey.'
20 Translate,'having fallen' (p. ce qui avait pụ décider (see 116, note 11).-'ill,' here, atteint. page 38, note 3) un homme si vieux 11 See page 7, note 7.—'in,' et si pauvre à partir de chez lui par. pour un si long voyage.
12 Saint-Jacques.-'in Spain ;' see 7 de lui accorder. 'It had page 16, note 10. pleased,' &c.; see page 31, note 3. en fut la de; see page 59, 8 See page 31, note 14.
note 6. en. There is an essential differ
14 See page 35, note 6. ence between dans and en with 15 Simply, Tous les assistants.
.... but the loss of him....1 the ass, he said he was assured, loved him .... and upon this told them a long story of a mischance upon their passage over the Pyrenean mountains which had2 separated them from each other3 three days ; during which time4 the ass had sought him as much as he had sought the ass, and that they had scarce either eat or drank till they met.5
"hou hast one comfort, friend,” said I,“ least, in the loss of thy poor beast; I'm sure thou hast been a merciful master to him...."- “ Alas !” said the mourner, “ I thought so, when he was alive ; but now that he is dead, I think otherwise. I fear the weight of myself and my afflictions together? have been 8 too much for him, they have shortened the poor creature's days, and I fear I have 10 them to answer for."11_" Shame on the 12 world !" said I to myself ; “ did we love each other 13
poor soul 14 but loved his ass, 't would be something."-(STERNE, Sentimental Journey.)
The mind sits 15 terrified at the 16 objects she has magnified herself and blackened : reduce them to their
proper size and hue, she overlooks them. 17 sa perte.
? mon poids joint à celui de mes qui, à leur passage dans les afflictions. Pyrénées, les avait ; see page 14, 8 See page 37, note 15. note 5, and page 32, note 4.
9. they ;' use the singular.3 See page 10, note 3
‘have ;' see page 79, note 15. 4 Translate,
three days, 10 See page 7, note 7. during which the ass,' &c.
11 à en répondre. n'avaient presque ni mangé ni bu jusqu'à ce qu'ils se fussent (or, 13 See page 48, note 13. simply, ni bu qu'ils ne se 14 homme; and leave out 'but.' fussent) retrouvés. 6 L'ami, dis-je, tu as . .
16 à la vue des. moins (see page 126, note 13).-In 17 il n'y fait plus attention. In familiar talk, we thus use the de- speaking of persons, instead of finite article before such words as things, we should say, il ne fait ami, homme, femme, fille, when ad- plus attention à eux (masc.—or, d dressing an inferior and unknown elles, femin.; and also d lui, masc. person.
sing., and à elle, fem. sing.), but vous le dire (not je vous le dirai). 10 d'un bout à l'autre du cor- 19 coûte que coûte. The English ridor.
true,"1 said I, correcting the proposition, “ the Bastille is not an evil to be despised ;2 but strip it of its towers, fill up the fossé, unbarricade the doors, call it simply a confinement, and suppose 't is some tyrant* of a distemper, and not of a man which holds you in it, the evil vanishes, and you bear the other half5 without complaint.”
I was interrupted in the hey-day 6 of this soliloquy with a voice which I took to be 8 of a child, which complained it could not get out. I looked up and down the passage, 10 and seeing neither man, woman, or child, 11 I went out without farther attention.
In my return back through the passage, I heard the same words repeated twice over;12 and looking up,13 I saw it was a starling hung 14 in a little cage. I can't get out, I can't get out, said 15 the Starling.
I stood looking at 16 the bird; and to every person who came through the passage it ran fluttering to the 17 side toward which they approached it, with the same lamentation of its captivity. ... I can't get out, said the starling.
“God help thee!” said I, “but I'll let thee out,18 cost what it will.” 19 So I turned about the cage to get to the
not leur (nor lui, sing.). See page . Translate, 'I heard repeat 21, note2. The rule on this point twice,' &c., and leave out over.' will presently be explained at full 13 "levant les yeux (page 26, length.
note 12). i Il est vrai ; il, instead of ce, 14 Leave this word out. here: if 'it' (taken in the sense 15 See page 1, note 3, and page of the demonstrative pronoun 55, note 'that') related to what precedes, 16 'to stand looking at,' rester à instead of depending on the fol- regarder. lowing que (that,'—conjunction, either expressed or understood, in je vais te faire sortir (see page English), we should then trans- 6, note 5). Whenever the fact late 'it is true' by c'est vrai, mentioned is going to take place 2 d mépriser.
immediately, the French prefer 3 une retraite forcée.
using thus the verb aller to em4 la tyrannie.
ploying the future, as is done in 5 le reste.
English : as, in this 6 les boutades.
phrase, Why? If you will listen, par.
I'll tell you (why)," Pourquoi ? Si 8 Translate, 'took for that.' vous voulez bien m'écouter, je vais See page 7, note 7.
student is particularly cautioned 11 Şee page 42, note 8.
against some gross blunders, of