Lapas attēli

you should do to Brutus. The question1 of his death is enrolled in the Capitol; his glory not extenuated wherein he was worthy; nor his offences enforced for which he suffered death.2

Here comes his body, mourned by Mark Antony, who, though he had no hand in his death, shall receive the benefit of his dying, a place in the Commonwealth; as which of you shall not? 5 With this I depart, that as I slew my best lover for the good of Rome, I have the same dagger for myself when it shall please my country to need my death.-(SHAKSPEARE, Julius Cæsar.)



Shylock. How now,9 Tubal? What news from Genoa ? Hast thou heard of my daughter?

Tubal. I often came where I did hear of her, but cannot 10 find her.

Shy. Why there, there, there! 11 a diamond gone that cost me two thousand ducats in Frankfort! the curse never fell upon our nation till now; I never felt it till now. Two thousand ducats in that and other precious, precious, jewels! 12

I would my daughter were 13 dead at my foot,

1 La cause; or, Le sujet; or, better, Les motifs.

2 to extenuate,' in this sense, diminuer, or, amoindrir; 'to enforce,' likewise, exagérer.-'in the capitol; his glory,' &c., au Capitole dans un exposé impartial où l'on n'a rien diminué de la gloire qu'il avait justement acquise, rien ajouté aux fautes qui lui ont mérité

la mort.

3 Voici.


Marc-Antoine qu'accompagne en deuil, lui qui, sans avoir eu part à sa mort, en recueillera les bienfaisants résultats.

5 et qui de vous n'en recueillera pas autant?

6 Voici ma conclusion: j'ai tué. 7'good,' salut; a full stop after 'Rome.'


8 I have;' Je garde. self;' simply, moi. -'please;' see p. 31, n. 8.- to need; demander. 9 Eh bien!

10 En beaucoup d'endroits on m'a parlé d'elle, mais je n'ai pu.

11 Voilà, voilà, voilà. -'a diamond gone,' translate 'I lose a diamond.'

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and the jewels in her ear!

O would she were hearsed at my foot, and the ducats in her coffin ! No news of them; and I know not what spent in the search :2 loss upon loss! the thief gone with so much, and so much to find the thief; and no satisfaction, no revenge; no il luck stirring but what lights on my shoulders; no sighs, but o' my breathing; no tears, but o' my shedding! 3

Tub. Yes, other men have ill luck too! Antonio, as I heard in Genoa....

Shy. What, what, what! ill luck, ill luck? Tub. Hath an argosie cast away,5 coming from Tripoli. Shy. Thank God! Thank God! is it true? is it true? Tub. I spoke with some of the sailors that escaped the wreck.


Shy. I thank thee, good 8 Tubal; good news, good


Tub. Your daughter spent in Genoa, as I heard, in one night, fourscore ducats.

Shy. Thou stick'st a dagger in me; I shall never see my gold again; 10 fourscore ducats at a sitting!11 fourscore ducats!

Tub. There came divers of Antonio's creditors in my company to Venice, that swear he cannot but break.12

1 que n'est-elle étendue là, devant moi, prête à être portée en terre. 2 Eh quoi! on n'en a point de `nouvelles? Allons, c'est comme cela.-Et Dieu sait tout l'argent que ces recherches vont me coûter encore! The words vont me coûter encore (future) are a slight deviation from the text ('spent'-past), for the sake of emphasis; this emphasis is not out of place: the Jew very naturally thinks of what must be spent altogether, in order to find his daughter-of both what the search has already cost him, and what it will again (encore) require on account of its unsuccessfulness as yet.

3 il n'y a de malheurs que pour moi, de soupirs que ceux que j'ex

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Shy. I'm glad of it: I'll plague him, I'll torture him : I am glad of it.

Tub. One of them showed me a ring that he had1 of your daughter for a monkey.


Shy. Out upon her! Thou torturest me,2 Tubal! It was my ruby, I had it of Leah, when I was a bachelor; I would not have given it for a wilderness of monkeys. Tub. But Antonio is certainly undone.


Shy. Nay, that's true, that's very true: go fee me an officer; bespeak him a fortnight before. I will have the heart of him, if he forfeit; for were he out of Venice, I can make what merchandise I will.8 Go, go, Tubal, and meet me at our synagogue; go, good Tubal; at our synagogue, Tubal.-(SHAKSPEARE, Merchant of Venice.)


THE Normans were then the foremost race of Christendom. Their valour and ferocity 10 had made them conspicu11 among the rovers whom Scandinavia had sent forth to


1 Translate, 'that he had had.' 2 La malheureuse! Tu m'assassines.

3 il me venait de Lia, qui me l'avait donné lorsque j'étais encore garçon.

4 un régiment.-'to give,' here, céder, to avoid the repetition of donner. 5 Qui.

6 va, Tubal, procure-moi un huissier. See page 77, note 8.

7 s'il manque à son engagement (or, simply, s'il ne me paye pas), il faut que j'aie son cœur.

8 car une fois qu'il ne sera plus à Venise, je puis faire toutes les opérations qu'il me plaira (see page 31, note 3).

9 et viens me retrouver.

10 See page 20, note 11.

11 les avaient fait remarquer; or, les avaient rendus (see page 32,

note 4) fameux. In the first of these two renderings, les is not the accusative of fait, but of remarquer; the accusative, or régime direct, of fait is understood, for it is as if we had, literally, 'had made (fait) some one-understood-notice (remarquer) them.' The nonagreement of fait, here, is consequently in accordance with the rule. But, even were the accusative of the past participle fait to precede it, that participle would not any more agree for that; for, -and this is worthy of special attention, as being the only exception to the rule given in note of page 32,-the past participle fait, when followed by a verb in the infinitive, is always invariable: ex., "je les ai fait parler," "ils nous ont fait taire," &c.

ravage Western Europe. Their sails were long1 the terror of both coasts of the channel.2 Their arms were repeatedly carried far into the heart of the Carlovingian empire, and were victorious under the walls of Maestricht and Paris. At length one of the feeble heirs of Charlemagne ceded to the strangers a fertile province, watered by a noble river, and contiguous to the sea, which was their favourite element. In that province they founded a mighty state, which gradually extended its influence over the neighbouring principalities of Brittany and Maine. Without laying

aside that dauntless valour which had been the terror of every land from the Elbe to the Pyrenees, the Normans rapidly acquired all, and more than all, the knowledge and refinement which they found in the country where they had settled. Their courage secured their territory against foreign invasion. They established internal order, such as had been long unknown in the Frank empire. They embraced Christianity, and with Christianity they learned a great part of what the clergy had to teach. They abandoned their native speech,8 and adopted the French tongue, in which the Latin was the predominant element. They speedily raised their new language to a dignity and importance which it had never before possessed. They found it a 10 barbarous jargon; they fixed it in writing;11 and they employed it in legislation, in poetry, and in romance. They renounced that brutal intemperance to

1 Leurs vaisseaux étaient (or, Leur marine était) depuis long temps.

2 la Manche.
3 See page 26, note 1.

4 s'étaient rapidement assimilé (or, approprié).

5 and more than all,' et même ils y avaient ajouté; and put this, in French, quite at the end of the


6 See page 38, note 1. 7 du clergé à peu près tout ce qu'il pouvait.

8 leur idiome national; or, leur langue nationale. The French words idiome and idiotisme, though akin,

are somewhat different in meaning:

idiome means the language pecu→ liar to a nation, and is sometimes, though seldom, synonymous with patois (dialect); whereas idiotisme always signifies a peculiar expression in a language, such as those, for instance, which constitute what we call Anglicisms, Gallicisms, Latinisms, &c.

9 See page 20, note 11, and page 32, note.

10 ils n'avaient trouvé qu'un; or, ils le (relating to langage, subst. masc.) trouvèrent à l'état de.

11 ils en firent une langue écrite.

which all the other branches of the Great German family were too much inclined. The polite1 luxury of the Norman presented a striking contrast to2 the coarse voracity and drunkenness of his Saxon and Danish neighbours. He loved to display his magnificence, not in huge piles of food and hogsheads of strong drink,3 but in large and stately edifices, rich armour,4 gallant horses, choice falcons, wellordered tournaments, banquets delicate rather than abundant, and wines remarkable rather for their exquisite flavour than for their intoxicating power. That chivalrous spirit which has exercised so powerful an influence on the politics, morals, and manners of all European nations, was found in the highest exaltation among the Norman nobles. Those nobles were distinguished by their graceful bearing and insinuating address. They were distinguished also by their skill in negotiation, and by a natural eloquence which they assiduously cultivated. It was the boast of one of their historians,9 that the Norman gentlemen 10 were orators from 11 the cradle. But their chief fame was derived from their military exploits.12 Every country, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Dead Sea, witnessed the prodigies of their discipline and valour. One Norman knight, at the head of a handful of warriors, scattered the Celts of Connaught.13 Another founded the monarchy of the Two Sicilies, and saw the emperors, both of the East and of the West,14 fly before his arms. A third, the Ulysses of the first Crusade, was invested by his fellow


1 élégant, or, raffiné, in this (subst. masculine, in this sense;

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we also say, le plus haut période,
but this expression forms a pleon-
asm, as période alone means
highest degree,' 'highest pitch ').
7 6 'bearing,' here, tenue, or tour-
nure; 'address,' manières.
8 Use the plural, here.
9 Aussi un
note 1) avec orgueil.
10 See page 46, note 8.
11 dès.

dit-il (page 32,

12 Mais c'est surtout par. qu'ils s'illustrèrent.


13 See above, page 101, note 3.
14 les empereurs d'Orient et d'Oc-

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