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and rhetoric, because so many subtle rhetoricians of the Athenian school perverted their faculty of reasoning from worthy and ennobling, and directed it to unworthy and base, purposes; using it to impede the attainment of truth, and to delude and deceive men. Then, alluding to the opposition that is made by the human affections, against those courses of just reasoning, or of truth, that are discovered and laid down in a philosophical form, Bacon has written as follows:
"If the affections in themselves were pliant and obedient to reason, it were true there should be no great use of persuasions and insinuations to the will, more than naked proposition and proofs; but in regard to the continual mutinies and seditions of the affections,
Video meliora, proboque,
Here we find that our great fellow-countryman has, in some degree, candidly admitted that upon which the allegation against him is founded.
As replication to that which has been advanced against the defective character of Lord Bacon's social action and conduct I would say, upon this point we are not in a condition to form a comprehensive and sound judgment. We may judge in part; but we cannot judge wholly. We see his character and his actions in part. This part is on record; is preserved and handed down; this part we adduce and build upon. But there may be later actions, later manifestations, later evidence showing quite a different phase of character, of which we know nothing. As the evidence stands, then, and, so far as the philosopher's social actions are embraced by it, we are, indeed, bound to make salutary use of it. To see in it, and
* Lord Bacon on the Advancement of Learning, vol. i. p. 157.
to lament, that great and peculiar perversion and defect which men in general so largely exhibit. The perversion of the great principle-Faith. The neglect and rejection of the principle of faith, under the influence and power of worldly temptation. Although we cannot avoid this attribution, yet upon this point evidence of a contrary kind has also to be offered, for Bacon having foreseen that an increase of selfishness amongst men would so occur, prevail, and rule, as to become almost universal, treated of this great point-the perversion and abandonment of faith-in the following manner: "Surely the wickedness of falsehood, and breach of faith, cannot possibly be so highly expressed, as in that it shall be the last peal to call the judgment of God upon the generations of men; it being foretold that when Christ cometh, he shall not find faith upon the earth." *
Some men may be of opinion that what Bacon included here under the great term- Faith,—is very deficient of that which the Scripture term really involves. It may be so. If it be so, it is our duty to set it right. This we may do, and do only, by a faithful application and devotion at the fountain head; by receiving the spiritual element and light before it has become contaminated by having been made to pass through human channels.
On attempting, then, to weigh and to apply the evidence that is imparted to us by Lord Bacon's philosophy, we ought, I maintain, to keep it distinct from that evidence which is supplied merely by the personal conduct of the philosopher. The physician may understand the nature and character of disease, and be able to show an effectual cure, notwithstanding he himself may be suffering from disease, and be negligent in the adoption of the remedy. We are, then, to try Bacon's
* Lord Bacon's Works, Essays Civil and Moral, vol. ii. p. 255.
philosophical principles and course by the words in which they are conveyed, applying them to the social sphere in which we have to act. On the great subject of Social and Political Economy he has not left, for the instruction of the world, matter consisting of fundamental propositions and of conclusions specially elaborated, or inductively derived. Also, it was with another of our great philosophers, I mean Locke, who, nevertheless, made far deeper and wider explorations in the field of Social and Political Science than Bacon did. But, notwithstanding this deficiency, both these great men laid down for our guidance—as I have proved by matter just quoted from the writings of Bacon, and as I have proved also in the case of Locke by citations of evidence from his writings previously made- those particular courses of philosophical reasoning which ought to be adopted when treating of this momentous science. These two deep and comprehensive thinkers, acute reasoners, and exalted men, opened the right way for us—directed that we should ever keep in view, and in application, right principles, social principles. Well would it have been for the reputation of those who have undertaken to labour in this field of science, and for the welfare and happiness of our own and other nations, if this right way had not been departed from, if these right social principles had not been sacrificed. But the world has chosen to eject the superior, or far seeing, and to accept and follow the inferior, or blind, guides: guides who, as I have shown, were so often under the necessity of admitting that darkness was the region in which they were thinking and writing. The ingenious falsehoods to which men in general resort for the purpose of turning aside the current of love from their neighbours, and of concentrating and applying all of it, or nearly all, within themselves, or within their own particular circles, and the abandonment of all pure true faith following
on this rejection of the principle of social love, would excite far more astonishment and apprehension than they do, did not the large volume of history abound with evidence, showing that this has been the course adopted by men in every age and in every nation; and also did not the daily occurrences of social life increase the volume of evidence; this familiarity with practical infidelity serving to reconcile the spirits and minds of cold, lukewarm, and world-devoted men to infidelity as a principle of daily life. The high termslove - faith truth are, indeed, preserved in name; a halo of impure human glory is thrown around them; men, as of old, conduct the solemn worship of God under these names; they persuade themselves that their regeneration is accomplished; but the quality of these high terms is so tampered with and transmuted, that no solid foundation or saving power remains. Hence, the last words quoted from and by Lord Bacon have to be specially regarded.
The principle shortly treated of in this chapter — the principle of sacrifice is that by which the quality of love, of faith, and of truth, has to be tried and proved. Each of us should take care, that when the moment shall arrive that we shall have to be tried in the balance, this principle- the principle of willing and joyful self-sacrifice — be not found wanting.
The Author and Finisher of our religion, in his careful and tender anxiety for our recovery and eternal safety, has placed before us the great fact here treated of, in many shapes, and in a manner so plain, that every one who even runs may read and know, if he so will. I will adduce one. There appear ten virgins. All these young women thought that they possessed the required character, the fitness,-Love, Faith, Truth. They had the lamp, but all of them had not the element neces
sary for constituting the enduring light, the Oil. All were equally full of professions of love, faith, and truth; but few possessed the reality. All were believers and worshippers; but few only worshipped in spirit and in truth. The unreal, the unloving, the unfaithful, and the untrue, had adopted the habit of relying upon others, of trusting to others for the supply of the spiritual element, and so had not repaired to the fountain-head of love, faith, and truth. In the emergency they thought, and they proposed, to procure the necessary element; but, to their surprise and horror, they found that neither borrowing nor buying would be allowed, or would avail. Spiritual light was the thing required; but the element of spiritual light they did not possess, because they had not taken the right course for procuring it.
So it is with the great principle-Sacrifice. If the love, faith, and truth professed, be not of that kind as to induce constant or habitual self-sacrifice, for the purpose of promoting and realising the maintenance of all fellow-creatures, -this being the object comprehended by the law, the providence, and the government, of God, the real element is wanting; fitness is not accomplished or reconstituted, and so condemnation and rejection must ensue.
Much more matter, and that of a deeply-interesting and most important character, has to be written on this great subject, but it must be left for the spiritual and mental elaboration of thoughtful, reflecting, and faithful men. In concluding my remarks upon its special connection with the subject of my present labours, I have to maintain, that all attempted elucidation of the science of Social and Political Economy that is destitute of the principle of sacrifice, or into which the writers, having been unable to see and to comprehend, and so have not introduced, this principle, is to