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a cure, and point out to us a course that is in accordance with the delightful aspirations and hopes in which we, the whole people, have been taught by our writers on Political Economy, and have delighted, to indulge. Show us a remedy consisting of a new investment of capital, or of some project of great scope and character; an undertaking that may appear to be fraught with astonishing money advantages, which may be introduced to the notice of the public with a prospect a prospect at least of large gain stamped upon the face of it. For instance, an occupation and appropriation of some new region of the world, possessing great capabilities, great fertility of soil, and abundant in natural productions, some newly-discovered copper-mines, some extensive mines of silver, or some rich gold-fields. All these we can dress up well, and introduce them with confidence on the marts of exchange, either the Royal Exchange or the Stock Exchange. Such projects as these we call practical, for they are suited to the money-market. They will produce excitement, that feeling which is hailed with so much delight in the money-market, as well as in every other market. They are something for our literary men, either by means of their journals or their books, to dilate upon, to deal with, and to deal out. But as for that old simple remedy, the becoming Honest Men, we don't see that it will pay. It will not bring in that accession of business that we want; it will not bring in commission-money, or lawyers' fees, or lucrative places. This old process of becoming Honest Men is a matter which few, very few, of the writers of the day can or dare touch, because the people will not like it. It is a subject that has become so worn, so threadbare, so 'flat, stale, and unprofitable,' that few indeed will listen to it."
Thus, now as of old, for the most part, the men are still thirsting after and crying out for more and more money;
the women are still thirsting after and crying out for more and more pleasure.
The description which was given by the faithful prophet of old, of the social feelings and principles of the people of ancient times, and the rebuke administered by him, are as applicable at this era as they were at the era when they were delivered. The following are some of his words:- "Wherefore, the Lord said, Forasmuch as this people draw near me with their mouth, and with their lips do honour me, but have removed their heart far from me, and their fear toward me is taught by the precept of men: therefore, behold, I will proceed to do a marvellous work among this people, even a marvellous work and a wonder: for the wisdom of their wise men shall perish, and the understanding of their prudent men shall be hid."
Again, he declared:-"Write it before them in a table, and note it in a book, that it may be for the time to come for ever and ever: that this is a rebellious people, lying children, children that will not hear the law of the Lord: which say to the Seers, See not; and to the prophets, Prophesy not unto us right things, speak unto us smooth things, prophesy deceits."*
Again:-The reception and working of bad social principles, those very principles that constitute the spirit and soul of our prevailing free system of Political Economy are denounced by another noble prophet as follows:-"From the least of them even unto the greatest of them every one is given to covetousness; and from the prophet even unto the priest every one dealeth falsely.”†
And then, when the bitter cry of distress is raised by the neglected, the impoverished, and the famishing children, some
Jeremiah, ch. vi.
* Isaiah, ch. xxix. xxx.
men, who, under the false philosophy or the current jargon of the day, are denominated scientific men -men assuming, and allowed to have attained, a knowledge of social statics, and by the power so acquired, to be able to divulge and to promulge the true courses of economic science and action, are seen to rise up and to declare that Nature is in fault-that no room is provided for these children at Nature's table, or at Nature's feast; that the fathers and mothers of these unhappy children ought not to have begotten them: whilst other men, men too of science, for all are men of science, having been prepared in, and having emerged from, the same school, dissent from, deny, and reject the negative philosophy of their brother-schoolmen, their brothers in science, and adopt and advocate a positive philosophy and course. These announce as their discovery, that provision Is made in nature, only that this provision exists in another and a distant part of the world; and that another climate and another soil, some five thousand or ten thousand miles off, must be sought out, appropriated, and inhabited. And so, forthwith, these distressed members of a luxury-devoted nation are separated from the parental sphere, are expatriated, being for the greater part in a condition of miserable pauperism, instead of being, as they might have been, provided with a sufficiency of capital from the parental stock, which, even though it had been small, would have enabled them to have entered upon the new sphere of labour and exchange, with a sufficiency of means for beginning their new life, a solid foundation, a foundation from which they would have derived due power, ease, and comfort. Instead of proceeding on the emigratory principle and course, they would have proceeded as able cultivators and developers, as colonisers and colonists, reflecting honour instead of shame on the nation that had sent them forth.
On social sacrifice. The indispensability of this principle shown. principle to be derived only from religion. — Lord Bacon's philosophy and example commented on. He is shown to have argued that all knowledge and all social philosophy are to be derived from religion.
THE great objection which so many men entertain and advance against that principle and system of Social and Political Economy which I have maintained as the true principle and system, in contradistinction of, and as opposed to, that free principle and system which is so widely, not to say universally, received, is founded upon a disbelief in, and even a dislike of, that feature of sustained just action which is presented to them; this feature they denounce as a feature of inclusiveness, of repression, of unnatural restraint, and of severe conservatism. The allegations lodged against the principle and system will be, that, to insure the fulfilment of the courses advocated, the feelings, desires, faculties, and general conduct and actions of man, must be made subject to very painful restraint; that, for the observance of these courses, a sacrifice must constantly be made of those desires, and opportunities of fulfilling desires, and of those strong aspirations towards advancement, change, and improvement, by which the constitution of man is influenced, his character for the most part formed, and his condition surrounded; that, in such a degree must the control and suppression of feeling and desire, and the sacrifice of self-interest and selfenjoyment be made, that few, very few, men will be found
willing to submit themselves to those courses of social action which the principle and system involve.
Now, that the great principle of sacrifice, social sacrifice, is involved, and that in a very large degree, there cannot be a doubt. It is of the utmost importance that the character of this great feature― sacrifice — should be so well considered as at all events to be perceived and received, if not thoroughly understood; for it lies at the root of all right and good social action, so that the constitution of right and good social action cannot be created without this element of sacrifice be present and incorporated. In this principle of sacrifice there. is involved that by which the highest interests of man, as presented by his existence in this present and fleeting world, and by his prospects of an existence in an everlasting world to succeed this, are ordained to be essentially affected.
To construct their argument, and to make out their case, as against the principle of sacrifice, they who have made considerable advancement in the world, by means of having acquired the advantages and the power of property, and also other men, will say that they find themselves influenced and impelled by a strong desire to advance still further, and to improve; that by the diligent cultivation of their faculties, both of hand and of head, they have acquired the power of inventing and constructing such and such things which they foresee will bring value to themselves, as also be valuable to society; or that they desire to discover, and to bring into social operation, new fields of commerce; or that, possessing the power, and having the desire, to go from the locality where they have been living, they wish to settle in another locality, or else to move about from place to place, for the pleasure, satisfaction, and improvement, attendant on becoming acquainted with the varied scenes and scenery of the world, as well as with the habits, manners, and knowledge