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"Socialism, Communism," we discern the very important
The idea, therefore, taken apart from their invented and falsely-founded systems, which those men promulgate, who advocate Socialism and Communism, is a most noble idea, and when entertained sincerely, and when pursued carefully and correctly, and with an earnest devotion to natural law, or truth, surrounds them with the highest honour.
I maintain, then, in opposition to the special systems of Socialism and Communism which are advocated, that the remedy, and the only remedy, by which the great social maladies under consideration are to be met, alleviated, diminished, or cured, is that which is supplied to us by Religion.
It is here, and here alone, that the true remedial courses are to be found. The due and right application of labourthe just dealing and trading the fulfilment of those duties that are connected, by the law in nature, with the acquisition and use of property-that just and honourable self-denial which is ready to forego profitable employment and investment of money when it has to be apprehended that injury to the interests of others may accrue by them; and all other courses which a true system of Socialism and Communism involves, are to be realised only by a proper preparation, and a just adaptation, of the instruments by which all are set in motion and accomplished. These instruments are men the hearts of men the minds of men the desires of men
the labour of men - the productions of men - and the demands or consumptions of men. Instead of individual selfihness being the motive power, the motive power must be individual just action, or Religion. Within it, all that is professed to be desired is comprehended; without it, nothing that is professed to be desired is comprehended. It is, in fulfilment, positive of good, or wealth; in non-acquiescence with it, and in non-fulfilment of it, there is that which is positive of evil, injury, and loss. The whole matter involved, therefore, is comprehended in choice. Men and nations have to make their election or choice. It is not possible to govern a nation against the will of the nation. What then have we to look to and regard above all other things? Plainly the Quality of the National Will.
Remedy for a bad national social condition to be derived, in the first instance, by means of the religious and moral principle of the people. — The improvement of trade and commerce, or the due attainment of remedy, not to be accomplished by means of laws regulating and restraining commerce. — The remedial course of action that of observing more moderation in general action, or in the employment of the national capital.
WHEN true principles of Social and Political Economy have been discovered and explained, the question arises - What means are to be adopted for inducing the people of a nation, as well as the people of different nations, to comply with these principles? This question embraces, of course, the great subject of practical remedy. Remedy for the lamentable inequality in the distribution of wealth, which prevails in all nations of people that condition that has ever prevailed. Remedy for the terrible evils of poverty and destitution. It has been shown that this lamentable condition of social disorder has been induced by excess excess of action in the system - excess of changes and exchanges - undue regard, or, in most cases, no regard at all, having been paid, in the social courses of invention, trade, commerce, and general living, to the great fact of the manner in which the courses pursued and adopted were calculated to affect the interests of the people in general.
Although the main feature of this question of practical remedy has been viewed and held to be without the province of Political Economy, and within the province of statesmanship, yet, as writers in general have, in one way or another,
entered upon a consideration of it, and, more particularly, as my treatment of the science embraces specially a treatment of the moral branch of it, I will proceed to state that which I have to maintain as a solution of this great question.
The derangements, then, having been shown to arise from excess of action in respect of the employment of the aggregate or national capital, hence, the course required for insuring remedy is a diminution of this excessive action, so that an approximation may be made towards that due proportion of supply, and that due proportion of demand, by which the whole of a nation's capital may be conserved, and its due increase promoted. The existing capital of every nation of people is the fund by which all are being maintained, of what kind soever, or of what degree soever, the maintenance may be. The maintenance must be supplied by means of the whole national capital. This being the existing state, I will assume, for the purpose of my argument, that a whole people assent to the principles and doctrines advanced, and agree to submit themselves to the legitimate issues or courses, for the purpose of honestly fulfilling a remedial course of social action. The question with them then will be-What are we to do? The answer is- Every man and family must remain for the present exactly as they are. The national capital is
now the foundation of their maintenance. Before they can improve their condition, or enlarge their maintenance, they must increase the national capital. This increase of the national capital can be effected by means of profit, and by this means only; this profit arising from all the capital involved, or that fund of value which is created and is operative. No man, therefore, however poor and suffering he may be, is to entertain the expectation that he can procure relief, or receive an increase, by invading, encroaching on, or taking away, that which is being enjoyed by another man. The bad state, the
condition precedent and lamented over, has been brought on by wrong social action. Remedy is not to be derived by a new impulse being given to this wrong principle of action. Under the law of nature, ALL are concerned in that infraction of natural social law that has been committed, and that has induced the evil. In the natural social law, no provision is made for this wrong doing or for the wrong doer. A return into the right course and law must be made before an advance towards remedy can be accomplished. Many will impatiently exclaim here- "What! is justness so rigidly just as this? Is there no provision whatever by which a departure from just action may be compensated for, may be made up, without the attending loss and suffering now mentioned ?" The answer is "There is no provision." He must have reflected, and observed, to very little purpose, who entertains the notion that there is, that there ever will be, or that there ever can be.
The natural law, by which our tenure and condition is surrounded, being of that just and potent character now described, it will be seen that although it is a difficult task to discover, to define, and to apply, by a course of reasoning, the natural law by which the material things of the world are to be procured and distributed, so that they may be made to conduce to that general maintenance and welfare of mankind for which all these things are designed, and for the accomplishment of which they are amply sufficient; yet it is a task far more difficult, to conceive and propose a system by which the true course is to be fulfilled. For although we are able to control, to dispose, and to govern, all that inert or passive matter of which the material things of the earth consist, yet the instrumentality by which all is to be accomplished being concentred in the will and agency of man, - first individually, and next collectively -and this by means of labour, and the exchanges resulting from the social application and organisation of