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ABSTRACT

The historical trends, methods, and observations of the courts, legislature and copyright Office concerning the copyright law in relation to the development and introduction of technological processes and products during the twentieth century are analyzed. The rationale and underlying trends in the adaptation of copyright statutes to new technologies is shown by discussion of key cases.

Several suggested mechanisms are reviewed for providing technological expertise to the courts to enable them to respond to the complex technological issues that may arise in copyright litigation.

The impact of copyright law upon computerized Scientific and Technological Information Systems (STI) is discussed in the context of data bases and document storage and retrieval. The characteristics and conditions of the use of copyrighted material in computerized STI systems is presented. Blanket licensing, clearinghouses and compulsory licensing mechanisms that might be adapted for the use of copyrighted material in computer systems are reviewed.

KEY WORDS:

Copyright
Scientific and Technological Information Systems
Blanket Licensing of Copyrights
Compulsory Licenses
Clearinghouse for Copyright Licensing
Copyrightable Works
Data Bases
Full Text Storage of Documents
Computer Systems
New Technologies relating to Copyright
Uses of Copyrighted Works

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A.2.2.5 Use of Music in Sound Tracks

A.2.2.6 Motion Pictures Under the New Act of 1976.
A.2.3 SOUND RECORDINGS
A.2.3.1 Right to Record Copyrighted Works.

A.2.3.1.1 Copyright Act of 1909.

A.2.3.1.2 Copyright Act of 1976.
A.2.3.2 Sound Recordings as Copyrightable Works.

A.2.3.2.1 Congressional Legislation.
A.2.4 RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTS

A.2.4.1 Broadcasting as Performance
A.2.4.2 Reception of Broadcasts as Performance
A.2.4.3 Wire Transmissions

A.2.4.4 Copyright Act of 1976
A.2.5 PHOTOCOPYING...

A.2.5.1 The Copyright Act of 1976.
A.2.6 CABLE TELEVISION SYSTEMS .

A.2.6.1 The Copyright Act of 1976.
A.2.7 MICROFILM, VIDEOTAPE, AND COMPUTER PROGRAMS.

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A.4.1 BACKGROUND

A.4.1.1 Legislative History.

A.4.1.2 Interested Groups.
A.4.2 SCOPE OF THIS SECTION.

A.4.2.1 Computer Programs.
A.4.2.2 Data Bases.

A.4.2.3 Supplying Copyrighted Documents
A.4.3 COPYRIGHT PROTECTION FOR COMPUTER PROGRAMS
A.4.4 DATA BASE SYSTEMS.
A.4.4.1 Copyright Protection for Data Bases

A.4.4.1.1 Copyrightability
A.4.4.1.2 Copyright Notice on Data Bases
A.4.4.1.3 Deposit of Copies for Registration

A.4.4.1.4 Supplements to Update Data Bases
A.4.4.2 Compiling Data Bases

A.4.4.2.1 Bibliographic Indexes

A.4.4.2.2 Abstracts in Data Bases
A.4.4.3 Putting Copyrighted Data Bases into

Computer Systems.
A.4.4.3.1 Where Publishers Offer to Supply Machine

Readable Copies. .
A.4.4.3.2 Where Publishers Do Not Offer Machine-

Readable copies.

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A.4.4.3.3 Where Third Persons Offer to Supply

Machine-Readable Copies ..
A.4.4.3.4 Input of Data Base as Use Subject to

Copyright .
A.4.4.4 Output from Data Base.

A.4.4.4.1 Normal Output. .
A.4.4.4.2 Extraction of Bulk of Data Base by User

of System
A.4.4.5 Exclusive and Compulsory Licenses for the

Use of Data Bases. ..
A.4.5 FULL TEXT STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL OF DOCUMENTS

A.4.5.1 Preliminary Observations
A.4.5.2 Input and Output of Documents as

Infringement .
A.4.5.3 Input or Output as Occasion for Obtaining

License
A.4.6 BLANKET LICENSING AND COMPULSORY LICENSING FOR

REPRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS.
A.4.6.1 Need for Blanket Licensing Mechanism
A.4.6.2 Voluntary Clearinghouse.

A.4.6.2.1 ASCAP and BMI as Models

A.4.6.2.2 Problem Areas .
A.4.6.3 Compulsory Licensing .

A.4.6.3.1 The Compulsory License for Jukeboxes
A.4.6.3.2 The Compulsory License for CATV Systems.
A.4.6.3.3 The Compulsory Licnese for Noncommercial

Broadcasting
A.4.6.4 Concluding Comments

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SUPPLEMENT 1 - STI TECHNOLOGY

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