Low-Power Electronics Design
The power consumption of integrated circuits is one of the most problematic considerations affecting the design of high-performance chips and portable devices. The study of power-saving design methodologies now must also include subjects such as systems on chips, embedded software, and the future of microelectronics. Low-Power Electronics Design covers all major aspects of low-power design of ICs in deep submicron technologies and addresses emerging topics related to future design.
This volume explores, in individual chapters written by expert authors, the many low-power techniques born during the past decade. It also discusses the many different domains and disciplines that impact power consumption, including processors, complex circuits, software, CAD tools, and energy sources and management.
The authors delve into what many specialists predict about the future by presenting techniques that are promising but are not yet reality. They investigate nanotechnologies, optical circuits, ad hoc networks, e-textiles, as well as human powered sources of energy. Low-Power Electronics Design delivers a complete picture of today's methods for reducing power, and also illustrates the advances in chip design that may be commonplace 10 or 15 years from now.
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Chapter 7 Logic Circuits and Standard Cells
Chapter 26 Memory Organization for LowEnergy Embedded Systems
Section IV LowPower Systems on Chips
Chapter 27 Power Performance TradeOffs in Design of SoCs
Chapter 28 LowPower SoC with PowerAware Operating Systems Generation
Chapter 29 LowPower Data Storage and Communication for SoC
EnergyEfficient Design of SoC Interconnect
Chapter 31 Highly Integrated UltraLow Power RF Transceivers for Wireless Sensor Networks
Chapter 32 PowerAware OnDemand Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Chapter 8 LowPower Very Fast Dynamic Logic Circuits
Chapter 9 LowPower Arithmetic Operators
Chapter 10 Circuits Techniques for Dynamic Power Reduction
Chapter 11 VHDL for Low Power
Chapter 12 Clocking MultiGHz Systems
Chapter 13 Circuit Techniques for Leakage Reduction
Chapter 14 LowPower and LowVoltage Communication for SoCs
Chapter 15 Adiabatic and ClockPowered Circuits
Chapter 16 Weak Inversion for Ultimate LowPower Logic
Chapter 17 Robustness of Digital Circuits at Lower Voltages
Section III LowPower Processors and Memories
Chapter 18 Techniques for Power and Process Variation Minimization
Chapter 19 LowPower DSPs
Chapter 20 EnergyEfficient Reconfigurable Processors
Chapter 21 Macgic a LowPower Reconfigurable DSP
Chapter 22 LowPower Asynchronous Processors
Chapter 23 LowPower Baseband Processors for Communications
Chapter 24 StandBy Power Reduction for SRAM Memories
Chapter 25 LowPower Cache Design
Chapter 33 Modeling Computational Sensing and Actuation Surfaces
Section V Embedded Software
Chapter 34 LowPower Software Techniques
Chapter 35 LowPowerEnergy Compiler Optimizations
Chapter 36 Design of LowPower Processor Cores Using a Retargetable Tool Flow
Chapter 37 Recent Advances in LowPower Design and Functional Coverification Automation from the Earliest SystemLevel Design Stages
Section VI CAD Tools for Low Power
Chapter 38 HighLevel Power Estimation and Analysis
Chapter 39 Power MacroModels for HighLevel Power Estimation
Chapter 40 Synopsys LowPower Design Flow
Chapter 41 Magma LowPower Flow
Chapter 42 Sequence Design Flow for PowerSensitive Design
Section VII Battery Cells Sources of Energy and Chip Cooling
Chapter 43 Battery Lifetime Optimization for EnergyAware Circuits
Chapter 44 Miniature Fuel Cells for Portable Applications
Chapter 45 HumanGenerated Power for Mobile Electronics
Why 8211 How
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achieved activity addition algorithm allows analysis application approach architecture array asynchronous battery bits block cache capacitance cell channel charge chip circuit clock CMOS communication complex components computation connected considered consumption cost cycle delay depends devices dissipation driver dynamic effects efficiency Electron energy Equation estimation example execution factor Figure flow frequency function gate given hardware IEEE implementation increase input instruction integrated interconnect issues latch leakage limited load logic low-power lower memory minimize node operation optimization output packet parallel path performance possible power consumption presented problem Proc processor receiver reduce routing scaling selected signal simulation specific speed stage structure supply voltage switching Table task techniques transistors transition unit voltage wire
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10-8. lappuse - that the output multiplexer can be controlled at f/2. The operation or access of a Unit 2 is started before the completion of the operation of Unit 1. Therefore, M successive computations do not have to be dependent on each other.
10-7. lappuse - (10.4) At first order, power could be saved even if V¿, is not reduced; however, some overhead has to be considered, such as the address registers duplication and the output multiplexer (Figure 10.3). If this overhead is not too expensive, such a parallelization scheme has to be considered for logic modules that are not on the critical path. At a low V,,¿,
10-7. lappuse - is reduced. As operating frequency is reduced, however, the use of cells with smaller or unsized transistors results in a power reduction. Furthermore, some parallelized logic modules do not require M-unit duplication. It is the case, for instance, for memories , in which each unit contains 1/M data or instructions, resulting in the same total area to store the information and in the same
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