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(Contract BMFT-FKZ-070-4580-6) (BPT-9/88; ISSN-0176-0777; ETN-89-94423) Copyright Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01
The design and performance characteristics of a vertical wind tunnel, adapted for research in cloud physics and atmospheric chemistry, are described. The Prandtl type wind tunnel is driven by suction of air into vacuum through a sonic valve which, together with a screen, honeycomb, and contration section pro positive air flow velocity control and a laminar flow of extremely low turbulence. This air stream quality allows the free suspension of water drops, ice crystals, snow flakes, and hailstones. An air conditioning system allows the simulation of a wide range of physical conditions in atmospheric clouds. Preliminary experiments show the feasibility of quantitative studies of, the rates at which atmosphere pollutants become incorporated by cloud drops, rain drops and ice particles, of the mechanisms controlling this incorporation, of the chemical reactions inside these particles, of the desorption of trace gases from these particles, of the drop-to-particle conversion, and of numerous other basic
ESA microphysical processes in atmospheric clouds.
N89-28529# Joint Publications Research Service, Arlington, VA.
The flight testing capabilities of the unmanned reusable Soviet orbiter, Buran, are described. Aspects of the spacecraft's landing are briefly discussed.
N89-28530# Joint Publications Research Service, Arlington, VA. DESIGNERS' COMMENTARY ON BURAN FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
c16 G. Gromov In its JPRS Report: Science and Technology. USSR Report: Life Sciences 15 Mar. 1989
Transl. into ENGLISH from Pravda (Moscow, USSR), 6 Dec. 1988 p 3 (For primary document see N89-28527 23-12) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01
The automated landing control system of the Soviet unmanned reusable spacecraft, Buran, is described. The electronic systems developed for this purpose were integrated into a unified navigation, traffic control and landing system named Vympel. It included the instrumental and electronic systems that made up the ground and on-board equipment.
N89-28526# National Aerospace Lab., Amsterdam (Netherlands).
Presented at the
The technical aspects of the central unit of the permanent noise measuring system, are discussed. The measured noise data values are obtained from a set of noise monitoring terminals located near a military airbase on Dutch territory. These values are collected together with time tags, stored on magnetic tape and processed. The central unit of this system is built using versa module eurocard technology, and the controlling software is developed using micro concurrent PASCAL language, whose compiler performs extensive type checking and identifies development errors. The most time consuming part of the software development is the development of the links of the system hardware. The central unit of the noise measuring system is built in such a way as to be fault tolerant. Missing data samples, lost connections or erroneous collected data should not disrupt the operation of the system.
N89-28531# Joint Publications Research Service, Arlington, VA. DEVELOPMENT, TESTING PROCEDURES FOR BURAN SHUTTLE
c16 Andrey Tarasov In its JPRS Report: Science and Technology. USSR Report: Life Sciences 15 Mar. 1989
Transl. into ENGLISH from Pravda (Moscow, USSR), 2 Jan. 1989 p 4 (For primary document see N89-28527 23-12) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01
A brief description of the planning that went into the development of the Soviet reusable spacecraft, Buran, is given. Opinions about the shuttle by its main designers are reviewed.
12 ASTRONAUTICS (GENERAL)
For extraterrestrial exploration see 91 Lunar and Planetary Exploration.
N89-28527# Joint Publications Research Service, Arlington, VA. JPRS REPORT: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. USSR REPORT: LIFE SCIENCES 15 Mar. 1989 77 p Transl. into ENGLISH from various Russian articles (JPRS-USP-89-005) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01
Topics addressed in these translated Russian articles include: (1) manned mission highlights (preparations, research program and launch of the Soviet-French Mission to Mir); (2) aerospace sciences; (3) aerospace engineering; (4) space technology applications; and (5) Soviet space policy and administration. Over 50 articles from various Russian publications are included. For individual titles, see N89-28528 through N89-28532.
N89-28532# Joint Publications Research Service, Arlington, VA. METHOD FOR RESEARCH ON PLANET VENUS USING FLOATING BALLOON STATIONS: MATHEMATICAL MODEL
c91 V. A. Vorontsov, V. A. Deryugin, V. P. Karyagin, R. S. Kremnev, V. V. Kuznetsov, V. M. Linkin, K. M. Pichkhadze, G. N. Rogovskiy, and A. V. Terterashvili In its JPRS Report: Science and Technology. USSR Report: Life Sciences
15 Mar. 1989 p 49-50 Transl. into ENGLISH from Kosmicheskiye Issledovaniya (Moscow, USSR), v. 26 no. 3, May-Jun. 1988 p 430-433 (For primary document see N89-28527 23-12) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01
A mathematical model of balloon probes such as those used in the Vega project of 1985 was formulated for understanding the nature of the drift process and correct interpretation of the experimentally collected data. The model describes both the characteristic and perturbed motion of a balloon during drift.
N89-28528# Joint Publications Research Service, Arlington, VA. THE ORBITAL SPACE OBSERVATORY GAMMA
c18 V. G. Kirillov-Ugryumov In its JPAS Report: Science and Technology. USSR Report: Life Sciences 15 Mar. 1989 p 14-23
Transl. into ENGLISH from Zemlya i Vselennaya (Moscow, USSR), no. 5, Sep.-Oct. 1988 p 5-13 (For primary document see N89-28527 23-12) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01
The approaching launch of the Soviet space observatory, Gamma, into near-Earth orbit is discussed. Although the energy
Los Alamos National Lab., NM. Laser Sciences Div. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS: LOW EARTH ORBIT ENVIRONMENT CHEMISTRY WITH SPACECRAFT SURFACES Jon B. Cross 1989
Presented at the Space Operations Automation and Robotics Workshop, Houston, TX, 25-27 Jul. 1989
The teaching tasks of the institute and the services offered to the students are outlined. Research activities are listed, but research results are not shown.
(Contract W-7405-eng-36) (DE89-014280; LA-UR-89-2168; CONF-890799-1) Avail: NTIS HC A02/MF A01
Long-term space operations that require exposure of material to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment must take into account the effects of this highly oxidative atmosphere on material properties and the possible contamination of the spacecraft surroundings. Ground-based laboratory experiments at Los Alamos using a newly developed hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) source have shown that not only are hydrocarbon based materials effected but that inorganic materials such as MoS2 are also oxidized and that thin (750A) protective coatings such as A1203 can be breached, producing oxidation of the underlying substrate material. Gas-phase reaction products, such as SO2 from oxidation of MoS2 and CO and CO2 from hydrocarbon materials, have been detected and have consequences in terms of spacecraft contamination. Energy loss through gas-surface collisions causing spacecraft drag has been measured for a few select surfaces and has been found to be highly dependent on the surface reactivity.
N89-28537*# Alabama Univ., Huntsville. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. COORDINATION OF ADVANCED SOLAR OBSERVATORY (ASO) SCIENCE WORKING GROUP (SWG) FOR THE STUDY OF INSTRUMENT ACCOMMODATION AND OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS ON SPACE STATION Final Report, 1 Aug. 1987 - 30 Apr. 1989 S. T. Wu Oct. 1989 127 p (Grant NAG8-682) (NASA-CR-185371; NAS 1.26:185371) Avail: NTIS HC A07/MF A01 CSCL 22A
The objectives are to coordinate the activities of the Science Working Group (SWG) of the Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) for the study of instruments accommodation and operation requirements on board space station. In order to facilitate the progress of the objective, two conferences were organized, together with two small group discussions.
Includes powered and free-flight trajectories; and orbital and launching dynamics.
N89-28534# Army War Coll., Carlisle Barracks, PA.
The future battlefield has been described as non-linear, chaotic, intense and highly lethal. To fight and win in this environment, the Army has developed the AirLand Battle Doctrine, which relies heavily on the fundamental tenets of initiative, agility, depth, and synchronization as it fights the close, deep and rear battle. Our current terrestrial intelligence and communications systems alone do not provide the sufficiency of connectivity, reliability and capacity to meet the demands of this new doctrine. These systems also suffer from electronic jamming, frequency detection and coverage limitations. New battlefield surveillance and communications systems offer increased day/night, all-weather capability to see deep behind enemy lines, but will be limited because of stand-off positioning limitations and air platform flight-time restrictions. Space-based systems cannot totally replace terrestrial and airborne systems but offer enhanced capabilities that provide timely, reliable information in a ready-to-use form necessary to fight the deep-attack doctrine. This paper will review current military uses of space and suggest several roles and missions for the Army in space as it moves into the 21st century and attempts to meet the demands of the AirLand Battle 2004 Doctrine.
N89-28538# Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB,
The purpose of this study is to locate critical inclinations in long term high eccentricity orbits about Mars using numerical methods. A critical inclination is defined as the inclination at orbit insertion which produces a local maximum in the amplitude of the variation of eccentricity or inclination. The perturbation model consists of the first non-zero zonal harmonic of the Mars gravity potential and the Sun as a point mass third body. The search range consists of inclinations from 0.25 to 90.0 degrees, eccentricities from 0.40 to 0.90, periapse radii from 4000 km to 7000 km, and orbit lifetimes of 10 earth years. The numerical search comprises the following procedure: (1) A time history of eccentricity and inclination is produced for each combination of orbit insertion initial conditions by numerically propagating Lagrange's Planetary Equations. (2) Each time history is fit, in the least squares sense, to a linear function. The standard deviation of the residuals for each fit is employed as the search parameter. (3) A three-dimensional surface plot of the standard deviation in eccentricity and the standard deviation in inclination versus eccentricity and inclination is produced for each value of periapse radius considered. (4) The three-dimensional surfaces are then reduced to two dimensions by plotting inclination versus eccentricity for the local maximums in standard deviation.
N89-28535*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
NASA is entering an era of expanded space activity. Space-based transportation systems will carry cargo and humans from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, to lunar bases, and to the Martian surface. Support of these future missions will require now, long lived, on-orbit systems using subcritical cryogens for propellants and life support systems. Such on-orbit systems present low gravity fluid management challenges of long term storage and efficient fluid transfer and supply techniques. Development of these cryogenic systems requires on-orbit experimentation to demonstrate the capability of performing these fluid management tasks and to obtain the engineering data base required to correlate analytical tools used for system design.
N89-28536# Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Luft- und Raumfart. (ACTIVITIES REPORT OF THE INSTITUTE OF SPACE RESEARCH) Annual Report, 1986-1987 (JAHRESBEREICHT 1986/87] K. Knothe, H. H. Koelle, and Prochnow 1988
in GERMAN (ILA-1986/87; ETN-89-94420) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF A01
N89-28539# Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB,
: NTIS HC A06/MF A01 CSCL 22/3
This thesis identifies the mean orbital elements which produce arcs of minimum altitude variation over an oblate planet with an axi-symmetric gravitational field. Such orbits are useful for surveillance or scientific study missions using optics with fixed focal lengths. Both Earth and Mars are considered and the optimum eccentricity is found as a function of argument of periapsis and inclination for two values of semi-major axis for each planet. The
results are curve fitted to develop a single equation which identifies the eccentricity needed to produce an arc of minimum altitude variation given the argument of periapsis, inclination, semi-major axis, ellipticity of the planet, equatorial radius, and the zonal J2. Once arcs with minimum altitude variations are identified, the properties of the arcs are considered. The mid-latitude, altitude, duration, and latitude range of the arcs are found as a function of argument of periapsis and inclination for various planet and semi-major axis combinations. The secular change in mean orbital elements will determine the most stable orbits. Secular changes in orbital elements due to the geopotential, drag, and third body effects are considered.
N89-28542# Los Alamos National Lab., NM.
In 1984 Los Alamos began the design of the Lethality Test System (LTS), a facility to be used for the study of impact physics at velocities up to 15 km/s. The key component of LTS was an electromagnetic launcher capable of accelerating a 30 gram mass to 15 km/s. By the time of the preliminary design review (July 1985) it was known from laboratory experiments that a conventional railgun was incapable of reaching 15 km/s starting at low velocity (approx. 1 km/s) and a hybrid design was adopted for the LTS launcher. The hybrid launcher consisted of a two-stage hydrogen gun that preaccelerated the test mass to 6.5 km/s and an electromagnetic launcher for the final acceleration from 6.5 to 15 km/s. Design calculations predicted that injection into the railgun at 6.5 km/s would reduce ablation sufficiently to permit operation at 12 km/s with reasonable probability of achieving 15 km/s. The hybrid launcher design adopted for LTS presents some unique mechanical and electrical issues. In particular, the hybrid design requires that the plasma armature be established in a high pressure gas environment behind the projectile. To address this issue, as well as to evaluate the mechanical and electrical design, an 1.83 meter long prototype of the electromagnetic launcher barrel was built and tested. This paper describes the prototype launcher tests and the performance achieved. In addition, testing of a plasma initiator operating in a high pressure gas environment is discussed.
N89-28540# Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB,
A technique for determining the orbital element set of a sunlight-illuminated object detected by an overhead platform (when passing through the sensor's field of view) is developed. The technique uses a Gauss orbit determination technique to find an initial target state estimate and then the estimate is refined via a batch weighted least squares estimation routine. A six element state vector consisting of three position and three velocity components describe the state at epoch. It was found that the Gaussian method produced reasonable initial orbits when the data bias was sufficiently zero. Each analyst-supplied slant range fit the data equally well, indicating that orbit determination is impossible with a single set of data. A unique series of events where the same object was tracked four consecutive days was fit using the developed algorithm, producing favorable results. The results of two single data set events and one multiple collection events are presented.
14 GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS AND
N89-28543# Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM. Plasma Theory Div. REGGIE RESULTS FOR THE NUNNALLY MASS LAUNCHER John R. Freeman Jun. 1989 (Contract DE-AC04-76DP-00789) (DE89-014377; SAND-89-0927) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01
Preliminary analyses are presented for the Nunnally mass launcher. The Nunnally launcher is much like ones described in U.S. Patents 1,370,200; 1,421,435; and 1,422,427 which were issued to A.L.O. Fauchon-Villeplee in the period 1917 to 1922. A discussion of why a high conductivity projectile impulsively accelerated in a uniform transverse B-field does not experience a drag force, even for very large magnetic Reynolds numbers (R sub m = 10(2)-10(4) is also presented.
Includes launch complexes, research and production facilities; ground support equipment, e.g., mobile transporters; and simulators.
For related information see also 09 Research and Support Facilities (Air).
N89-28541* # Houston Univ., TX. Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center. (PRIMARY RESEARCH EFFORTS ON EXPLORING THE COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF THIN FILM GROWTH AND MATERIALS PURIFICATION IN SPACE) Annual Report, 1987-1988 1989 16 p (NASA-CR-184913; NAS 1.26:184913) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 09B
The progress made on research programs in the 1987 to 1988 year is reported. The research is aimed at producing thin film semiconductors and superconductor materials in space. Sophisticated vacuum chambers and equipment were attained for the epitaxial thin film growth of semiconductors, metals and superconductors. In order to grow the best possible epitaxial films at the lowest possible temperatures on earth, materials are being isoelectronically doped during growth. It was found that isoelectrically doped film shows the highest mobility in comparison with films grown at optimal temperatures. Success was also attained in growing epitaxial films of InSb on sapphire which show promise for infrared sensitive devices in the III-V semiconductor system.
N89-28544# Range Commanders Council, White Sands Missile
This standard consists of three volumes: volume 1, Design and Performance Requirements, specifies the engineering design, performance and test standards: volume 2, inspection and Test Methods; and volume 3, Automatic
Test Procedures. Receiver/decoders submitted for acceptance which are intended for use in range safety applications shall, as a minimum, pass the tests and inspections specified. The receiver/decoders submitted for acceptance shall be compatible with existing range transmitting systems. Since specific missile systems and range requirements vary, this document should be used in conjunction with other related publications to develop a program test document for new systems. Any exceptions, deletions or additions to test requirements imposed by this document for new range safety receiver/decoders should be presented to the lead range for review and approval.
induction field, current-density profile, and arc length. The measured results are then employed in conjunction with a one-dimensional, steady-state model to calculate properties of the arc which cannot be measured directly. Among the quantities calculated are the armature mass and the temperature and ionization state as a function of position in the arc. As a result of this analysis, it is concluded that the armature remains nearly constant and that the arc temperature is somewhat lower than had been expected previously. Both these factors lend some credence to the use of plasma armatures for a wide variety of applications.
N89-28545* # National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed a unique capability for evaluation of the microwave components of a digital communication system. This digitally modulated bit-error-rate (BER) measurement system (DMBERMS) features a continuous data digital BER test set, a data processor, a serial minimum shift keying (SMSK) modem, noise generation, and computer automation. Application of the DMBERMS has provided useful information for the evaluation of existing microwave components and of design goals for future components. The design and applications of this system for digitally modulated BER measurements are discussed.
N89-28549* # National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Mechanical properties of short test specimens are tested in tension and fatigue using an improved electrical resistance heating furnace having a short length that mounts between the grips of a typical testing machine. The furnace includes a ceramic inner liner having an oval cross-section to reduce heat loss at the ends. The furnace is divided into a plurality of individually controlled heating zones. Provision is made to supply an inert gas to the volume around the specimen in the center of the furnace.
N89-28546*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
An apparatus is presented for testing O-ring gaskets under a variety of temperature, pressure, and dynamic loading conditions. Specifically, this apparatus has the ability to simulate a dynamic loading condition where the sealing surface in contact with the O-ring moves both away from and axially along the face of the O-ring.
15 LAUNCH VEHICLES AND SPACE
Includes boosters; operating problems of launch/space vehicle systems, and reusable vehicles.
For related information see also 20 Spacecraft Propulsion and Power.
N89-28547*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
A low frequency torsional suspension system for testing a space structure uses a plurality of suspension stations attached to the space structure along the length thereof in order to suspend the space structure from an overhead support. Each suspension station includes a disk pivotally mounted to the overhead support, and two cables which have upper ends connected to the disk and lower ends connected to the space structure. The two cables define a parallelogram with the center of gravity of the space structure being vertically beneath the pivot axis of the disk. The vertical distance between the points of attachment of the cables to the disk and the pivot axis of the disk is adjusted to lower the frequency of the suspension system to a level which does not interfere with frequency levels of the space structure, thereby enabling accurate measurement.
N89-28550* # National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
A 15-m-diameter antenna was tested to verify that dimensional tolerances for acceptable performance could be achieved and to verify structural, electromagnetic, and mechanical performance predictions. This antenna utilized the hoop column structure, a gold plated molybdenum mesh reflector, and 96 control cables to adjust the reflector conformance with a paraboloid. The dimensional conformance of the antenna structure and surface was measured with metric camera and theodolites. Near field pattern data were used to assess the electromagnetic performance at five frequencies from 2.225 to 11.6 GHz. The reflector surface was adjusted to greatly improve electromagnetic performance with a finite element model and the surface measurements. Measurement results show that antenna surface figure and adjustments and electromagnetic patterns agree well with predictions.
1989 66 p
N89-28548# Ballistic Research Labs., Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Diagnostic measurements on the plasma armature of the large-bore railgun, CHECMATE, have been made for four separate firings. These measurements include time-dependent values of the current, light output, and breech and muzzle voltages. In addition, signals obtained from B-dot data are used to infer the armature
N89-28551*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Aug. 1989 55 p (NASA-TM-100375; NAS 1.15:100375) Avail: NTIS HC A04/MF A01 CSCL 22A
New concepts are presented for aerospace vehicle ascent wind profile biasing. The purpose for wind biasing the ascent trajectory is to provide ascent wind loads relief and thus decrease the probability for launch delays due to wind loads exceeding critical
limits. Wind biasing trajectories to the profile of monthly mean winds have been widely used for this purpose. The wind profile models presented give additional alternatives for wind biased trajectories. They are derived from the properties of the bivariate normal probability function using the available wind statistical parameters for the launch site. The analytical expressions are presented to permit generalizations. Specific examples are given to illustrate the procedures. The wind profile models can be used to establish the ascent trajectory steering commands to guide the vehicle through the first stage. For the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) program these steering commands are called l-loads.
Includes satellites; space platforms; space stations; spacecraft systems and components such as thermal and environmental controls; and attitude controls.
For life support systems see 54 Man/System Technology and Life Support. For related information see also 05 Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance, 39 Structural Mechanics, and 16 Space Transportation.
16 SPACE TRANSPORTATION
Includes passenger and cargo space transportation, e.g., shuttle operations; and space rescue techniques.
For related information see also 03 Air Transportation and Safety and 18 Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance. For space suits see 54 Man/System Technology and Life Support
N89-28552*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. DOCKING MECHANISM FOR SPACECRAFT Patent Application Gregory A. Lange, inventor (to NASA), John P. McManamen, inventor (to NASA), and John A. Schliesing, inventor (to NASA) 30 Dec. 1988 (NASA-Case-MSC-21386-1; NAS 1.71:MSC-21386-1; US-Patent-Appl-SN-292123) Avail: NTIS HC A03/MF A01 CSCL 22B
A system is presented for docking a space vehicle to a space station where a connecting tunnel for in-flight transfer of personnel is required. Cooperable coupling mechanisms include docking rings on the space vehicle and space station. The space station is provided with a tunnel structure, a retraction mechanism, and a docking ring. The vehicle coupling mechanism is designed to capture the station coupling mechanism, arrest relative spacecraft motions while limiting loads to acceptable levels, and then realign the spacecraft for final docking and tunnel interconnection. The docking ring of the space vehicle coupling mechanism is supported by linear attentuator actuator devices, each of which is controlled by a control system which receives loading information signals and attenuator stroke information signals from each device and supplies output signals for controlling its linear actuation to attenuate impact loading or to realign the spacecraft for final docking and tunnel interconnection. The retraction mechanism is used to draw the spacecraft together after initial contact and coupling. Tunnel trunnions, cooperative with the latches on the space vehicle constitute the primary structural tie between the spacecraft in final docked configuration.
N89-28529# Joint Publications Research Service, Arlington, VA.
N89-28530# Joint Publications Research Service, Arlington, VA.
N89-28531# Joint Publications Research Service, Arlington, VA.
In its JPRS Report: Science and Technology. USSR Report: Life Sciences 15 Mar. 1989
Transl. into ENGLISH from Pravda (Moscow, USSR), 2 Jan. 1989 p 4 (For primary document see N89-28527 23-12) Avail: NTIS HC A05/MF A01
17 SPACE COMM., SPACECRAFT
COMM., COMMAND & TRACKING
N89-28553* National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
A berthing mechanism especially for use in berthing and compliant air-tight securing between manned space vehicle and modules is disclosed. The interface is provided by a pair of annular rings, one of which is typically, mechanically attached to the vehicle and the other to the module to which it is to be docked and secured. One of the two rings is attached to a base by resilient bellows. The facing surface of one annular ring is joined to a base by a cable laced through alternating pulleys attached circumferentially so that the interface surface of that ring may be tilted to accommodate angular misalignment as the annular rings are brought into docking (berthing) contact. Interleaving guide flanges with chambered sides provide at least some rotational mialignmnet correction. A plurality of actuator/attenuator units provide means for extending one annular ring toward the other in the final stages of docking, for absorbing the initial docking shock and for drawing the annular rings into tight interface contact. Locking hooks provide for securing the interfaces.
Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
Includes telemetry; space communications networks; astronavigation and guidance; and radio blackout.
For related information see also 04 Aircraft Communications and Navigation and 32 Communications and Radar.
No abstracts in this category.