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These forms of assistance are paid by the Federal Government and at levels which are uniform throughout the nation.
The legislative history of the Act makes clear that these provisions embody a broad general principle. The initial form of the Act was drafted by the Kennedy Administration and introduced in the House as H.R. 9900 of the 87th Congress. The President's message, dated January 25, 1962, accompanying the bill stated in part:
"When considerations of national policy make it desirable to avoid higher tariffs, those injured by that competition should not be required to bear the full brunt of the impact. Rather, the burden of economic adjustment should be borne in part by the Federal Government.
“Just as the Federal Government has assisted in personal readjustments made necessary by military service, just as the Federal Government met its obligation to assist industry in adjusting to war production and again to return to peacetime production, so there is an obligation to render assistance to those who suffer as a result of national trade policy."
(H. Doc. #314, 87th Cong. 2d Sess., reprinted in H.R. Ways and Means Comm., 90th Cong., 1st Sess., “Legislative History of H.R. 11970, 87th Cong., Trade Expansion Act of 1962” (1967), at pp. 90-91 (hereinafter cited as “Leg. Hist."))
Secretary of Commerce Luther Hodges made the principal presentation before the House Ways and Means Committee. Discussing relief for firms and workers injured by increased imports, he said :
“The Federal Government has a special responsibility to such firms and workers. For their hardship can be directly traced to a specific action undertaken by the Government for the good of all—the lowering of trade restrictions in order to open up new markets for our goods abroad. As the President has said, no industry or work force should be made a sacrificial victim for the benefit of the national welfare. No small group of firms and workers should be made to bear the full burden of the costs of a program whose great benefits enrich the Nation as a whole." (H.R. Ways and Means Committee, 87th Cong. 2d Sess., Hearings on H.R. 9900, p. 90; Leg. Hist. p. 172)
The Ways and Means Committee revised the administration's bill and reported out the revision as H.R. 11970. In its report, the Committee justified the adjustment assistance provisions in the following language :
*The furnishing of this assistance is fully consistent with our traditional practice of protecting American commerce and labor from serious injury resulting from imports. It will enable those firms and workers injured by increased imports to receive prompt help that is suited to their individual needs." (H. Rept. No. 1818, 87th Cong., 20 Sess., pp. 13–14; Leg. Hist., pp. 1077–78)
Representative Hale Boggs was the floor manager of the bill in the House. In his speech introducing the bill, he supported the adjustment assistance provision as follows:
"[I]t is based on a very sound fundamental principle: That in the pursuit of a national objective, we shall give assistance to the businessman who is hurt and give assistance to the workingman who is hurt. There is nothing new or radical about this. When we call a lad and say: You must go to serve your country in the Army or the Navy or the Air Force, we also say to him : Son, when you come back home, your job will be waiting for you. We assure him of reemployment rights. If he is hurt, we put him in a veterans' hospital.
"Throughout the entire history of the United States, we have consistently recognized the fact that in the pursuit of an overall national policy, we have made adjustments for those who are injured thereby-whether it be injury to firms or to workers. That is all this bill does nothing else. In most instances, it will use existing machinery which has already been established by law.” (Cong. Rec. 6/27/62, pp. 11,086–87; Leg. Hist. p. 1189)
Representative Keogh, another member of the Ways and Means Committee, subsequently remarked about these provisions :
“Having set up the fences which we now propose to lower or remove, we have the obligation-in equity and good conscience to assist these affected firms and workers in meeting the new situation which the Government will permit to come about.” (Cong. Rec. 6/27/62, p. 11,111, Leg. Hist. p. 1233)
Both in the House and in the Senate, objections were raised to the payment of a uniform amount to workers, rather than the amounts payable under state unemployment compensation systems, which in most cases were much less. In the House, Representative Conte of Massachusetts argued that this was discriminatory and offered as a particular example unemployment in his home district caused by cancellation of a government contract. Representative Mills, then as now Chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, answered that in Conte's example the government was acting like any other contractor, and continued :
"Assistance in the case of removal of tariffs can be justified, because this condition arises through Government sovereign action, taken in the public interest, to lower tariffs and thereby take a job away from this man. The sovereign has seen fit to remove a tariff which it placed on an article to protect the job. In all equity and good conscience it must take steps to make the affected worker's adjustment to the new competitive conditions created by its own acts as easy as possible under the circumstances.” (Cong. Rec. 6/27/72, p. 11,117; Leg. Hist. pp. 1243-44)
In the Senate, two amendments were offered with respect to the adjustment assistance provisions. The first sought to eliminate the provisions entirely. The asserted grounds were that the provisions discriminated against those unemployed for other reasons, that some of those others might have become unemployed because they had been providing goods and services to the industries forced out of business by imports, and that there was no essential difference between unemployment caused by imports and unemployment due to changes in government purchasing. (Remarks of Senator Curtis, Cong. Rec. 9/17/72, p. 18,688; Leg. Hist. pp. 1702–03) (Of course, the motive for the amendment was to eliminate labor support of the Act as a whole and thereby defeat the Act.)
Senator Williams of New Jersey opposed the amendment and defended the provisions in the bill as follows:
"I strongly support the President's trade program. I think it is vital to our Nation's continued growth and prosperity. But I see no reason why the few communities, industries or workers who may possibly suffer some adverse effect from the reduction of trade barriers must bear the entire burden. If the interests of the Nation and the interests of our national trade policy cause some injury, the Nation, and therefore the Federal Government have a clear and unmistakable obligation to alleviate that injury and facilitate adjustment to new economic activities.” (Cong. Rec. 9/17/72, p. 18,691 ; Leg. Hist. p. 1706)
The first amendment was defeated, 58-23.
The second amendment was offered by Senator Byrd of Virginia. It would have set the level of payments at the rate prevailing under state unemployment compensation programs, rather than at the uniform national level set by the bill. The arguments in support of the amendment were similar to those for the previous amendment. In opposition to the amendment and in support of the pending bill were the following remarks:
Senator SMATHERS. “I, too, believe in States rights. I believe that if an injury done to a worker results from action taken by a State, the State, rather than the Federal Government, should provide the proper compensation.
But when this bill goes into effect, the injury will result from Federal action, from the action of the Federal Government in removing the tariff, thereby allowing the entrance of imports which will result in damage to an industry and in the loss of the jobs of the workers in that industry. In view of the fact that the action would be Federal action, those of us on the committee took the position that the Federal Government should have the responsibility for making the compensation payments due to the worker because he lost his job as a result of action taken by the Federal Government.
I believe that in this instance the Federal Government, acting in what I regard as the overall interest of the Nation—and I recognize that some workers will be injured thereby, but there will be overall benefit to American industry and to the general economy-has the responsibility, under the original concept, to provide funds for proper and necessary compensation.” (Cong. Rec. 9/17/72, p. 18,694; Leg. Hist. p. 1712)
Senator Long: “Mr. President, it is a fair proposal that Federal standards be used in paying for Federal injury, we provide private relief bills to compensate Federal injury all the time. If one examines the calendar, he will find more
private relief bills than any other kind. This is a relief bill for those the Federal: Government chooses to injure in the pursuance of a program in the overall national interest. On the whole, we anticipate an increase in national income as a result of the bill. We anticipate an increase in employment overall. We do not want to do that at the expense of a few and the suffering of an unfairness to a few Americans who will be injured.” (Cong. Rec. 9/17/72, p. 18,695 ; Leg. Hist. p. 1714)
Senator MANSFIELD : “These import-affected workers would not be casualtiesof supply and demand or any other impersonal economic force. Instead, their unemployment would be directly attributable to a decision of the Federal Government taken in the national interest. Certainly, the Federal Government would owe a special obligation to those injured by such actions."
The amendment was defeated, 51–31. The principle was thereby affirmed that if the Federal Government causes injury to some industry in order to achievesome broad goal of foreign policy, it should compensate those who have been injured, at least in part.
Accordingly, it is urged that the precedent of the Trade Expansion Act be followed and that an appropriate enactment be promulgated to vitiate the economic damage upon authors and publishers if Congress should determine that it is in the national best interest to ratify the Paris text of the Universal Copyright Convention. If, as supporters of the Paris revisions have asserted, the compulsory licensing provisions will be little used by the developing countries, then the Senate will have affirmed, at little cost,
the sound principle that a small class of citizens is not to be required to bear the burden of furthering the national interests without compensation. If, as we fear, compulsory licensing will become widespread among developing countries, then the injury to authors and publishers will be substantial in terms of the normal dimensions of the publishing industry, and there will be a serious need for compensation. Measured against the sums which the Congress usually appropriates in connection with foreign aid, however, the amount of compensation would in any event be negligible.
We suggest that provisions for such compensation would be simpler than those of the Trade Expansion Act because:
1. The Paris texts of both the U.C.C. and the Berne Union include procedures for notifications to the copyright owners or proprietors when a developing country grants a compulsory license on copyrights owned by United States citizens (as well as all other countries).
2. Under the Adjustment Assistance program of the Trade Expansion Act, one recurring problem which requires extensive investigations by the Tariff Commission is to determine whether injuries to particular American industries are caused by current tariff reductions or other factors, such as general business conditions, increasing American costs, prior tariff reductions, etc. Such problems are entirely absent here, where the loss of income to authors and publishers is demonstrated from the use of their literary property by a developing country (with little compensation or none) under compulsory licenses.
3. The uses made of educational materials in the developing countries can be measured. Royalties under compulsory licenses, regardless of their rates, will normally be measured by such uses, i.e., number of books, records, tapes, etc. sold, and such numbers should in the ordinary course be reported together with the royalty payments, or be obtained by inquiry from the licensees.
4. The measure of compensation that could be set forth in the statute would be a predetermined percentage of those royalties which publishers and authors charge in the normal course of export licenses.
Accordingly it is urged that the Paris Revision of the Universal Copyright Convention not be ratified. However, in the event that despite the unwarranted and unfair distinction made between tangible property and intellectual property Congress decides that it is in the national interest to ratify the treaty, then it is urged that an enactment paralleling the Adjusment Assistance provisions of the Trade Expansion Act be passed to preserve the rights of authors and publishers in conformity with the traditions of the United States.
B. L. LINDEN.
COMPARISON OF CONCESSIONS TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES UNDER THE EXISTING BERNE CONVENTIONS,
THE STOCKHOLM PROTOCOL AND THE PARIS REVISION*
CHART 1.-TRANSLATION RIGHTS [*The following tabular summary of the “Paris Revision” relates to the Paris Revision of the Berne Convention. Substantial
differences between this Revision and the Paris Revision of the Universal Copyright Convention are indicated by asterisks and explained by "Notes" appearing at the conclusion of the tables. Where no note is indicated, the summary of the Paris Revision serves as a summary of the concessions made to developing countries in the Universal Copyright Convention]
Existing Berne Conventions (Rome, 1928 and Brussels,
Stockholm protocol (1967)
Berne Paris Revision (1971)
Despite Convention recog- A developing country may reserve the Same as Stockholm Protocol with respect nition of exclusive translation right to allow translation of Works without to translation into languages "in general rights, any country may re- authorization or compensation if, after ten use" in the developing country. JAppendix, serve the right to allow trans- years from first publication of the original Arts. V(1)(a), 16Xb); Text,' Art. 30(2). Jation of Works into its na- Work, an authorized translation has not (See note 1.) tional languages without been published in a Union country in the authorization or compensa- language for which protection is claimed. tion if, after ten years from Developed countries may not retaliate first publication of the origi- against Works emanating from a developing nal Work, an authorized country making this reservation. (Protocol, translation into such language Art. 1(b)(i). (A developed country making has not been published in a such a reservation under Stockholm is subUnion country. Other Con- ject to retaliation (Text, Art. 30(2)(b)).) vention countries may not retaliate against Works emanating from a country making this reservation. (Art. 25(3).)
In addition to allowing free translation As an alternative to allowing free transla. NO COMPULSORY ten years after first publication, a develop. tion ten years after first publication, a LICENSE
ing country may subject the right of transla- developing country may subject the right of tion to compulsory licensing. (Protocol, Art. translation to compulsory licensing (Appen1(b)(i)(ii).]
dix, Art. II, V(1)(c), Þ(2), 1(1)].** (See
note 1.) The system of compulsory licensing al- The system of compulsory licensing allows lows the "competent authority" (not de- the "competent authority" (not defined) to fined) of a developing country to authorize authorize the translation of Works, and the the translation of Works, and the publica- publication of the translation in printed or tion of the translation, without the authority analagous forms of reproduction, without the of the owner of translation rights, on certain authority of the owner of translation rights, terms and conditions. (Protocol, Art. 1(b) on certain terms and conditions. (Appendix, (ii).]
Art. 11(1), !|(2)(A)]. In the case of certain audio-visual Works, the license extends to publication of the translation in audio
visual form. (Appendix Art. III(7)(6). All books, audio-visual Works, and other All Works "published in printed or Works are subject to compulsory trans- analagous forms of reproudction" are lation license. [Protocol Art.1(b); Text, subject to compulsory translation licensing. Art. 11.) No special provision is made con- Appendix, Art. 11(1)). cerning application of the compulsory The textual portions of audio-visual license to the textual portions of audio- Works which were prepared and published visual Works.
for the sole purpose of being used in connection with systematic instructional activities' are subject to a compulsory translation license. (Appendix, Art. 11(9)(c). 111(7)(b). (The rules governing translation of the textual portions of audio-visual Works differ from those governing printed Works. In the former case, the rules follow those pertaining to the compulsory reproduction
license under the Paris Revision.) A compulsory translation license may be Printed Works: A compulsory license for granted without restriction as to purpose. translation of printed Works may be granted
only for the purpose of "teaching, scholarship or research." (Appendix, Art. 11(5).)
A broadcasting organization headquartered in a developing country may secure a compulsory license to translate a printed Work if the translation is only for use in broadcasts (live or recorded) to recipients within the developing country, which broadcasts are intended exclusively for teaching or the dissemination of the results of specialized technical or scientific research to experts in a particular profession"; and if "all uses made of the translation are without any commercial purpose." (Appendix, Art. 11(9) (a)(b).
COMPARISON OF CONCESSIONS TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES UNDER THE EXISTING BERNE CONVENTIONS,
THE STOCKHOLM PROTOCOL AND THE PARIS REVISION*-- Continued
CHART 1.-TRANSLATION RIGHTS-Continued
Existing Berne Conventions (Rome, 1928 and Brussels,
Stockholm protocol (1967)
Berne Paris Revision (1971)
(The compulsory translation license does not encompass the right to record or broadcast the translation. However, Convention recognition of the broadcasting right allows member countries to determine the conditions under which that right may exist, subject to compensation which may be fixed by the competent authority, and to determine the regulations for ephemeral recordings" made by broadcast organizations. Text, Art. Albis.)
Audio-Visual Works (Prepared and Pub. lished solely For Use in Connection with Systematic instruction): Broadcasters may secure a compulsory license to translate the textual portions of such Works for the same purposes as noted in connection with their translation of printed Works. (Appendix, Art. 11(9Xc).)
In other cases, a compulsory license for translation of the textual portions of such Works may be granted only for use in connection with systematic instructional activ
ities" (Appendix, Art. 111(7)(b), 11(1).) The compulsory translation license may The compulsory translation license may only be granted for translation into a "na- only be granted for translation into a lantional, official, or regional language" of guage "in general use'' in the licensing the licensing State. (Protocol, Art. 1(b)- State. (Appendix, Art. 11(2)(a), 111(7)(b). (iii).)
Printed Works: The compulsory translation license The compulsory translation license becomes available three years after first becomes available after a stated number of publication of the original work if a trans- years from first publication of the original lation thereof has not then been published Work if a translation thereof has not then in the licensing State into a national, official been publicized anywhere in the language or regional language of that State, or if all concerned, or if all editions of a translation previous editions of a translation in such into such language are out of print. language in that State are then out of print. In the case of translations into a language (The license will be available for transla. not in general use in any developed Berne tion into any of the national, official or country the relevant period is one year. regional languages into which the original (Appendix, Art. 11 (3Xa), 11(2)(a).! Work had not been published or in which a In the case of translations into a language translation is out of print.) (Protocol, Art. I in general use in any developed Berne (b)(ii).)
country, the relevant period is three years. (Appendix, Art. 11(2)(a). (In the case of translations into languages other than English, French or Spanish, a lesser period may be substituted by agreement between the developing country and all developed Berne countries in which the language is in general use. Appendix, Art, II(3)(b).)
Audio-Visual Works (Prepared and Published Solely For Use in Connection with Systematic Instruction):
The compulsory translation license becomes available to broadcasters at the same times as govern printed Works. (Appendix, Art. 11(9XcXd).)
In other cases, a compulsory license for translation of the textual portions of such Works becomes available in connection with a compulsory license to reproduce the Work) after a stated number of years from first publication of the Work if copies thereof have not then been distributed in the licensing State "at a price reasonably related to that normally charged in that country for comparable works," or no copies have been on sale for six months in that State at "reas. sonably related" prices. (Appendix, Art. 111(7)(b), 111(2XaXb)./
The relevant period is: three years for Works in the area of science, mathematics and technology; seven years for Works of fiction, poetry, drama and music; five years in other cases. (Appendix, Art III()(b), 111(3).)