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The preceding table shows a very small proportion of households paying under $1 rent per person per month, 19.4 per cent paying under $2, 40.1 per cent under $3, and 63.5 per cent under $4 rent per month per person. Native-born of native father report a somewhat higher percentage of households as paying under $1 per person per month than do the foreign-born, there being no households native-born of foreign father which pay under that amount. Foreign-born show the highest percentage, paying under $2, followed by native-born of foreign father and native-born of native father in considerably smaller proportions. The foreign-born also report the highest percentage of households paying under $3 per month per person, closely followed by those classed as native-born of foreign father, those native-born of native father showing a very much lower percentage paying under that amount. Native-born of foreign father report the highest percentage as paying under $4, followed by foreign-born and native-born of native father, the latter showing slightly less than 50 per cent. Among the foreign-born, German households alone show a certain proportion paying under $1 rent per month per person. Armenians show the highest per cent of households paying under $2, under $3, and under $4, Germans having the lowest per cent paying under $2, Irish the lowest under $3, and English the lowest per cent of households paying under $4 per month per person.

BOARDERS AND LODGERS.

The practice of the wives of employees of the collar and cuff manufacturing industry in taking boarders or lodgers into the home in order to supplement the earnings of the husbands has been discussed in a preceding chapter. The extent of this practice and its bearing upon living conditions are considered in the two following tables, the first of which shows the number and percentage of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household. TABLE 43.-Number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.]

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The foregoing table shows that of the total number of households studied 7.6 per cent keep boarders or lodgers. Native-born of native father show a higher percentage of households keeping boarders or lodgers than either native-born of foreign father or foreign-born, who follow in the order mentioned in somewhat small proportions. Of the foreign-born races Armenians show the highest percentage of households, and Irish no households, keeping boarders or lodgers. In the following table the average number of boarders or lodgers per household is shown, according to general nativity and race of head of household. The averages are based (1) on the total number of households, and (2) on the number of households keeping boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 44.-Average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.]

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The preceding table shows the average number of boarders or lodgers per household to be 0.08 as based on the total number of households, and 1.10 as based on the number of households keeping boarders or lodgers. The groups native-born of native father and native-born of foreign father, with the same proportions, both show a somewhat higher average than the total foreign-born when comparisons are based on the total number of households. Of the foreign-born races Armenians report the highest average number of boarders or lodgers per household and Germans the lowest.

SIZE OF APARTMENTS OCCUPIED.

The range in the size of the apartments occupied by households is indicated by the following table. This table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms:

TABLE 45.-Per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The preceding table shows the highest per cent of households occupying apartments of 5, 6, and 7 or more rooms. A considerably smaller proportion occupy apartments of 4 rooms, while the percentage occupying apartments of 2 and 3 rooms is very small. The foreign-born report a very small proportion occupying apartments of 2 rooms, while those native-born of native father and native-born of foreign father report no households in apartments of that size. Native-born of foreign father report the highest percentage of households occupying apartments of 3 rooms. Foreign-born report the highest percentage of households in apartments of 4 rooms. Those native-born of native father show the highest percentage in apartments of 5 rooms. Native-born of foreign father report the highest percentage of households in apartments of 6 rooms. The percentage of households classed as native-born of foreign father in apartments of 7 or more rooms is very much higher than that of native-born of native father or foreign-born, who follow in the order named. Among the foreign-born races, Armenians alone show a percentage of households occupying apartments of 2 rooms; this race also reports the greatest proportion of households in apartments of 3 or 4 rooms, the Danes showing no households in apartments of 3 rooms, and Germans the lowest percentage of households occupying apartments of 4 rooms. The Danes report the highest percentage of households in apartments of 5 and 6 rooms, and English and Irish show a much higher percentage of households occupying apartments of 7 or more rooms than any of the other races given.

SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The range in the size of households studied is exhibited by the following table, which shows, according to general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households of each specified number of persons.

TABLE 46.-Per cent of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more households reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The preceding table shows the highest percentage of households as composed of 2, 3, and 4 persons. A considerable proportion are made up of 5 persons, while the percentage of households of 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 or more persons is small. Native-born of native father report a considerably higher percentage of households of 2 and 3 persons than either native-born of foreign father or foreign-born. Foreignborn show the highest percentage of households composed of 4 persons. Households native-born of foreign father report a considerably larger proportion of their number composed of 5 persons than do the foreignborn or native-born of native father. Foreign-born also report a greater proportion of households of 6 and 7 persons than native-born of foreign father or native-born of native father, who follow in the order named. Native-born of foreign father report a slightly higher proportion of households of 8 persons than native-born of native father or foreign-born, who follow in decreasing ratio. No households native-born of native father or native-born of foreign father are composed of 9 persons, while the foreign-born show a very small percentage of households of that size. Native-born of foreign father report a small percentage of households made up of 10 or more persons, while foreign-born and native-born of foreign father show no households composed of 10 or more persons. Of the foreign-born races it is noticeable that the English, Irish, and Danish households are composed of a somewhat smaller number of persons than those of Armenian and German.

CONGESTION.

The extent to which crowding prevails in the households of employees of the collar and cuff manufacturing industry has been indicated in the preceding tables. In the following series of tables the degree of congestion and its effect upon living arrangements are more directly set forth. The first table presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms.

TABLE 47.-Average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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The above table shows 3.67 persons in apartments of 3 rooms, 3.08 persons in apartments of 4 rooms, 3.65 persons in apartments of 5 rooms, 4.03 persons in apartments of 6 rooms, and 4.34 persons in apartments of 7 or more rooms. The foreign-born households show a higher average number of persons in apartments of each specified number of rooms than do the native-born of native father, while native-born of foreign father report a higher average number of persons in apartments of 6 rooms than do the foreign-born. The foreignborn report a higher average number of persons in apartments of 7 or more rooms than do the native-born of foreign father. The totals of the above table show that households native-born of foreign father have the highest average number of persons per apartment, followed by foreign-born and native-born of native father, in the order named. Of the native-born of foreign father, the Germans report a higher average number of persons per apartment than Irish. Of the foreignborn races, it is noticeable that Armenians, Germans, and Danes show more than 4 persons per apartment, while English and Irish show less than this number.

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