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INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES.
From the standpoint of recent immigration the most significant feature in connection with the growth of the silk industry has been the resultant increase in the number of employees due to the fact that the necessary operatives have been obtained largely from among recent immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. The expansion of the operating force of the industry may be readily understood from the fact that only 31,337 wage-earners were employed in 1880, as contrasted with 79,601 in the year 1905. The table below shows the increase in the number of operatives in the United States as a whole and in the principal producing States during the period 1880– 1905:
TABLE 2.—Increase in the number of silk goods wage-earners in the United States and in selected States, 1880-1905.
[From United States Census Report, Manufactures, 1905, Part III, Table 16.]
The investigation of the industry was restricted to the principal silk goods producing localities of the Middle and New England States, special emphasis being placed upon Paterson, N. J., and the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania.
A total of 272 households the heads of which were employed in the industry, were studied in detail. In the following table the number of households studied is shown according to general nativity and race of head of household:
TABLE 3.-Households studied, by general nativity and race of head of household: Paterson, N. J.
Of the 272 households studied in this industry, 92.3 per cent are households the heads of which are foreign-born and 7.7 per cent are those the heads of which are native-born of native father. Among the households the heads of which are foreign-born, the South Italian households constitute a slightly larger proportion of the total number of households studied than do the North Italian or Hebrew households, and a very much larger proportion than do the Armenian, Polish, or Syrian households, the Polish and Syrian households each constituting 9.2 per cent of the total number of households studied.
MEMBERS OF HOUSEHOLDS FOR WHOM DETAILED INFORMATION WAS
The table next presented sets forth, by general nativity and race of head of household, the persons in the households studied and the persons for whom detailed information was secured:
TABLE 4.-Persons in households studied and persons for whom detailed information was secured, by general nativity and race of head of household: Paterson, N. J.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)