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TABLE 33.-Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see p. 142.]

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Of 236 male heads of families, 47.9 per cent earn under $400, 76.7 per cent earn under $600, 95.8 per cent earn under $800, and 99.2 per cent earn under $1,000 per annum, the average earnings being $448. The foreign-born show a larger proportion than the native-born earning each specified amount, consequently a lower average earning. Of the several foreign-born races the North and South Italians are the only ones showing a proportion earning as high as $800, while the South Italian shows the largest and the Armenian the smallest proportion earning under $600 per annum. Over 50 per cent of each race, except the Armenian and Syrian, earn under $400, and less than 5 per cent any race, except the North Italian and Polish, earn under $200 per annum. Only 3 races-the Hebrew, South Italian, and Polishshow a proportion earning under $100.

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ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In the table next submitted the average and range of annual earnings of all males in the households studied who were 18 years of age or over, are shown by general nativity and race of individual:

TABLE 34.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of the total number of males 18 years of age or over, 49.2 per cent earn under $400 per year; 78.5 per cent earn less than $600. The highest level of earnings is among the native-born of native father, 38.1 per cent earning under $600. The lowest level of earnings is among the foreign-born, the greater proportion of whom earn less than $400. There is, however, wide variation in the earnings common among the specified races. Of the Poles, for example, 71.1 per cent earn even less than $400, while 46.3 per cent of the Armenians earn under $600. The greater proportion of Syrians earn less than $600. The remaining races, in the greater proportion of cases, earn under $400.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table following shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the yearly earnings of all females, in the households studied, who were 18 years of age or over and who were working for wages.

TABLE 35.- Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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The average earnings of the 63 females for whom information was obtained in this industry amount to $318, the total foreign-born females reporting an average of $315. Because of the small numbers reported by most of the races, computation has been made for the females of only one race-the North Italian-who report average earnings of $303.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

In the series of tabulations which are next presented the average amount and range of annual family income are studied, together with the different sources of family income and their relative importance. The following table, the first submitted in this connection, shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the percentage of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount: TABLE 36.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The greater proportion of the total number of selected families have a total yearly income under $750. This is characteristic of both the native-born of native father and the foreign-born. A majority of the families of all races but the Armenian have a yearly income of less than $750. More of the Armenians than of any other race have an income of at least $1,500 a year. Relatively small yearly incomes are most general among the Hebrews, 72.7 per cent having under $500.

WIVES AT WORK.

The extent to which the wives of the families studied were regularly employed for wages outside the home, together with their average annual earnings, is shown in the following table according to general nativity and race of head of family:

TABLE 37.-Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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It appears that of the 38 wives at work the average yearly earnings were $285. The percentage of North Italian women at work and the size of their earnings are the notable figures of the table. All the other races, except the Poles, show less than 10 per cent of wives at work.

RELATION BETWEEN THE EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

Although a considerable proportion of the wives of the families the heads of which were silk operatives, as well as other female members of the families, seek regular employment outside the home as a means of contributing to the family support, a much larger proportion of the wives add to the earnings of their husbands by taking boarders or lodgers into the home. The extent to which the wives. of the families find it necessary to supplement in this way the earnings of their husbands, is set forth in the following tables, which show the number and percentage of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, according to yearly earnings of husband and general nativity and race of head of family:

TABLE 38.-Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

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• For selection of families, see p. 142. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.

TABLE 39.--Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see p. 142. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.]

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It will be noticed that 28.2 per cent of all wives, regardless of the amount of the husband's yearly earnings, are employed as wageearners or are keeping boarders or lodgers. Where the income of the husband is under $400 a year, 31.9 per cent of wives are working or keeping boarders or lodgers; where the husband earns between $400 and $600, 28.4 per cent are so engaged; and where the husband earns

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