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TABLE 20.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the total number of foreign-born females who were 16 years. of age or over at time of coming to the United States 65.2 per cent were without occupation abroad and 32.4 per cent were working for wages. "Without occupation" was the most common industrial condition of the females of each specified race excepting the North Italians, of whom 72.1 per cent were working for wages.

The following table analyzes the preceding table into the principal occupations followed before coming to the United States by foreignborn females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country. The presentation is by race of individual.

TABLE 21.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The greater proportion of the total number of foreign-born females who had worked for wages abroad were textile factory operatives. That was likewise the common occupation of the Hebrews, North Italians, and Poles who were working for wages.. The Armenians

working for wages were in other than the specified occupations; the Syrians were most commonly occupied in sewing and embroidering. In the case of each race the persons working without wages were farm laborers. Four-tenths per cent were working for profit as farmers and 0.8 per cent were in other occupations.

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING TO THE UNITED STATES.

The table next presented shows the percentage of foreign-born male employees who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States. The exhibit is by race.

TABLE 22.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the foreign-born male employees for whom information was secured, 73.9 per cent were employed abroad in textile manufacture, 6.5 per cent in farming or farm labor, 5.4 per cent in hand trades, 4.1 per cent in trade, 4 per cent in manufactures other than textile, and 1.4 per cent in general labor. The proportion of individuals who were employed abroad in textile manufacturing is largest for the Russian Hebrews and smallest for the South Italians.

The following table shows, by race, the percentage of foreign-born female employees who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States.

TABLE 23.-Per cent of foreign-born female employees in each specified occupation before coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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It appears from the data presented in the foregoing table that 76.1 per cent of the female employees for whom information was secured were employed abroad in textile manufacturing; 1.6 per cent in other manufacturing; 7.5 per cent in farming or farm labor; 4.7 per cent in domestic service; 7.1 per cent in sewing, embroidering, and lace making; 2.2 per cent in trade; and 0.8 per cent in occupations not specified. Of the two races for which the percentages are given, the North Italians have a larger proportion of individuals who were employed in textile manufacturing before coming to the United States than have the Germans.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF MALES AT THE PRESENT TIME, IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In contrast with the preceding tabulations, the series of tables next presented exhibits the industrial condition of employees and members of their households in this country.

The first table presents the general occupation of males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over, according to general nativity and race of individual.

TABLE 24.-General occupation of males 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the four hundred persons reporting complete data, 90.3 per cent are employed in the silk industry, 7 per cent are otherwise employed, and less than 2 per cent each are at home and at school. All of the Syrians reporting are employed in the silk industry. Over 90 per cent each of the Hebrews, North Italians, and South Italians are in the silk industry, as compared with 88.5 per cent of the Armenians and 78 per cent of the Poles. None of the Hebrews are employed in industries other than silk goods. Less than 10 per cent each of the Armenians and North and South Italians are so employed, while the proportion for the Poles is 20 per cent. The Poles show the largest proportion of males who are at home, yet in that case it is only 2 per

cent. Each of the other races, except the Syrian, shows less than 2 per cent at home. None of the North Italian, Polish, or Syrian males reporting are at school, and less than 2 per cent each of the Armenians and Hebrews. Of the South Italians, 2.1 per cent are at school.

GENERAL OCCUPATION OF WOMEN AT THE PRESENT TIME, IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The next table submitted shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the general occupation of females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over.

TABLE 25.-General occupation of females 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.

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75.6 per

Of the total number of females 16 years of age or over, cent are at home, 18.5 per cent are in the silk industry, and relatively smaller proportions are in the other general occupations. These figures closely reflect the occupation of foreign-born females, all but 31 of the total 336 being in that class. Considerably the largest proportion of the females of each specified race, the North Italian excepted, are at home, the proportion ranging from 74.1 per cent of Polish to 96 per cent of Syrian. The North Italians show only 47.9 per cent at home. They, however, have 45.2 per cent in silk goods, a proportion far outranking that of any other specified race.

WEEKLY EARNINGS.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male employees 18 years of age or over who were earning each specified amount each week.

TABLE 26.-Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of the male employees for whom information was secured, almost all earn $5 or over per week, 93.8 per cent earn $7.50 or over, 72.3 per cent earn $10 or over, 42.2 per cent earn $12.50 or over, 28.8 per cent earn $15 or over, 14.5 per cent earn $17.50 or over, and 5.8 per cent earn $20 or over. The proportions of individuals earning $12.50 or over and $15 or over per week, respectively, are largest for the nativeborn of foreign father, second largest for the native-born of native father, and smallest for the foreign-born; while the proportions earning $17.50 or over and $20 or over per week are largest for for the native-born of native father, second largest for the nativeborn of foreign father, and smallest for the foreign-born. Of the foreign-born the English and Dutch, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the South Italians and North Italians the smallest proportion of individuals earning $12.50 or over, $15 or over, and $17.50 or over per week, respectively. The proportion of individuals earning $20 or over per week is very much larger for the English than for the individuals of any other race and is smallest for the South Italian.

The table following shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of female employees 18 years of age or over who were earning each specified amount per week.

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