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The preceding table shows that information was secured from a total of 6,089 employees-2,951 of whom are males and 3,138 of whom are females. Of the males, 65.7 per cent are of foreign birth, 24.5 per cent are native-born of foreign parentage, and 9.8 per cent are native-born of native parentage. Of the females, 43.8 per cent are native-born of foreign parentage, 36.7 per cent are of foreign birth, and 19.5 per cent are native-born of native parentage. Considering the foreign-born by race, it is seen that the Germans show the largest proportion of both males and females, with 13.8 per cent of the former and 8.4 per cent of the latter. Certain races report no males and certain other races no females. The difference between the proportion of males and the proportion of females of a given race is not large enough to require specific comparison.

The table below shows in a representative form the racial make-up at the present time of the silk goods manufacturing establishments of the various localities studied.

TABLE 17.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race.

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TABLE 17.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race-Continued.

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It appears from the above table that of the employees for whom information was secured 56.5 per cent of the males and 23.8 per cent of the females are foreign-born, 27.6 per cent of the males and per cent of the females are native-born of foreign father, and 15.9 per cent of the males and 23.2 per cent of the females are nativeborn of native father. Males whose fathers were born in Germany, England, Ireland, and the Netherlands, and females whose fathers were born in Ireland, Germany, England, Russia, and AustriaHungary, have the largest representation among the native-born of foreign father. The principal races of the foreign-born are, in the case of the males, the Germans, North Italians, English, Russian Hebrews, and South Italians, in the order mentioned, and in the case of the females the Germans, North Italians, English, and Poles, in the order mentioned.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States-General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time, in the households studied-Weekly earningsRelation between period of residence and earning ability-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied—Annual family income-Wives at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgersSources of family income-Relative importance of the different sources of family income.-[Text Tables 18 to 42 and General Tables 6 to 21].

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In order that a comparison may be made of the condition in this country and the condition abroad of the immigrant silk operatives, it is necessary to point out their general industrial status and the principal occupations followed by them before emigrating from their native countries. This is done in the following series of tables, the first of which shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

TABLE 18.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

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Of the total number of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over when they came to the United States, 82.3 per cent had been working for wages; 10.2 per cent had been working for profit. Working for wages was the most common industrial condition of each specified race, the proportion so occupied ranging from 93.3 per cent of the North Italians to 65.6 per cent of the Armenians. The Arme

nians and Syrians show larger proportions working for profit and larger proportions without occupation than does any other race.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

TABLE 19-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

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Of 294 foreign-born male employees who were 16 years of age or over at the time of coming 4.4 per cent were without occupation before coming to the United States. Ten and two-tenths per cent were working for wages as farm laborers, 0.3 per cent as general laborers, 52.7 per cent as textile factory operatives, 7.5 per cent in hand trades, and 11.6 per cent in other occupations. Two and four-tenths per cent were working without wages as farm laborers and 0.7 per cent in other occupations. Three and seven-tenths per cent were working for profit as farmers and 6.5 per cent in other occupations. The Syrian and Armenian male employees show the highest per cent who were without occupation, while none of the Poles were without occupation before coming to the United States. Of those working for wages the South Italians show the highest per cent who were farm laborers and general laborers; the Hebrews the highest per cent and the South Italians the lowest per cent who were textile factory operatives. The Syrians show the highest per cent in hand trades and the Armenians the highest per cent in other occupations. Of the foreign-born male employees who were working without wages before coming to the United States the South Italians show the highest per cent who were farm laborers and the North Italians the highest per cent who were in other occupations. Of those who were working for profit before coming to this country, the South Italians show the highest per cent who were farmers and the Armenians the highest in other occupations.

The following table shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

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