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The table next presented shows, by sex, the number and per cent of the employees for whom information was secured in Paterson, N. J.

TABLE 8.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race: Paterson, N. J.

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CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households-Racial classification of employees at the present time-[Text Tables 9 to 17 and General Tables 4 and 5].

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

No statistics are available to show the racial movements to the silk industry during past years, owing to the fact that, previous to the year 1900, persons engaged in silk-goods manufacturing were included with all other textile workers in the return of the federal census of occupations. In the federal census of 1900 a distinction was made between the several classes of textile operatives, and it was made possible to ascertain the parentage of silk-mill operatives. In order to obtain an insight into the racial make-up of the operating forces at that time, the following series of tables have been prepared from the census returns. In the first table submitted, which follows below, the general nativity and parentage of the employees of the silk industry in the three States of New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, and in the country as a whole, is shown for 1900.

TABLE 9.-Silk-mill operatives in 1900, in States specified, classified as native-born and foreign-born and by country of birth of parents.

[Compiled from United States Census Report 1900, Occupations.]

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The figures of the foregoing table are from the United States census reports. It will be noted that there is no classification of foreign-born employees by country of birth, but that all employees are classified

by country of birth of parents. The figures are for both males and females. There were in 1900 a total number of 54,460 silk-mill operatives in the United States. Of these, 16,798 were native whites born of native parents, 19,687 were native whites born of foreign parents, and 17,818 were foreign-born whites. In New Jersey, the proportion of foreign-born employees was considerably larger than in either New York or Pennsylvania. Among the employees of foreign parentage those of German, Irish, and British parentage, in the order mentioned, were present in the largest numbers. The parents of 4,237 operatives were born in countries not specified. It will be noted that the proportion of operatives of northern and western European parentage considerably exceeded the proportion of employees of southern and eastern European parentage. This was true, in general, not only of the United States as a whole, but of the several States for which the data are presented, as well. There was, however, a considerable proportion of employees of Italian parentage in New Jersey. The proportion of workers of southern and eastern European parentage was larger in New Jersey than in either New York or Pennsylvania.

The composition of the working force of this industry is further indicated by the returns for the principal silk-manufacturing cities studied. The following table shows the general nativity and parentage of the employees of the silk-manufacturing industry at Brooklyn, N. Y., Paterson, N. J., and Scranton and Wilkesbarre, Pa.:

TABLE 10.-Silk-mill operatives in 1900, in cities specified, classified as native-born and foreign-born and by country of birth of parents.

[Compiled from United States Census Report 1900, Occupations.]

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In the above table the classification adopted is the same as in the preceding table, showing the employees by States. There were, in 1900, in the four cities for which data are presented, 15,468 silk-mill operatives. Of these, 1,979 were native whites born of native parents, 6,439 were native-born whites of foreign parents, and 7,050 were foreign-born whites. In other words, more than one-half of all the workers were foreign-born. The proportion of foreign-born em

ployees was very much larger at Paterson, N. J., than at any of the other cities specified. It will be noted that among the employees having one or both parents born abroad those of British, Irish, and German parentage, in the order mentioned, had the largest representation. The proportion of workers of northern and western European parentage was much larger than the proportion of workers of southern and eastern European parentage. This was true not only of all the cities for which data are presented combined but of the several cities as well. At Paterson, N. J., however, there was a considerable proportion of employees of Italian parentage and of employees of unspecified foreign parentage.

In Part II of this report an outline of the racial movements to the silk mills of the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania is presented. The history of immigration to Paterson, N. J., may also be presented for comparative purposes and for the additional reason that Paterson is the principal silk goods manufacturing and dyeing locality in the United States and the racial movements there may be considered representative of the history of immigration to the industry as a whole.

PATERSON, N. J.

The silk industry was established in Paterson in the year 1854 with the erection of a small factory for making silk thread. The plant was equipped with hand looms, and was directed by an Englishman who had been trained in the silk mills of England. A second mill was erected in 1856, and, after the close of the civil war, the industry developed rapidly. These early mills were operated almost exclusively by English and Scotch immigrants who had been apprenticed in the factories of Great Britain. The combined number of English and Scotch silk workers employed in the community in 1865 was about 100. The estimated number of immigrants of all races employed in the Paterson silk mills at the present time is 15,000.

English immigration.-English immigrants established the silk industry in Paterson and supplied the early labor with which the plants were operated. The real English immigration did not begin, however, until about 1870, although during the years immediately preceding the civil war a light immigration of the race occurred. About 1870 the industry began to develop rapidly and a demand was created for skilled workers. Skilled silk workers could not be found among the native Americans and the employers turned to England. to recruit their forces. It is estimated that about 15,000 English immigrants were induced to come to Paterson from the old English silk town of Macclesfield. A few Scotch and Irish immigrants were included in this early movement. The town of Macclesfield was practically depopulated and rendered of little industrial importance the emigration which found its way into the mills of Paterson. There was no difficulty in getting English workmen to emigrate to Paterson. About 1870 the hand looms were dispensed with in America and power looms were installed in their places. On these looms it was possible for workers to earn far more than on the old hand looms still employed in England. The volume of English immigration soon became large, and continued more or less steadily up to 1890, when the Italians began to enter the industry. Beginning in 1890 it declined, and in 1893 and 1894 it fell off heavily under

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