Lapas attēli

The golden tree of marriage began
In Paradise, and bore the fruit of man;
On whose sweet branches angels sat and


And from whose firm root all society sprung.

Love (whose strong virtue wrapt heaven's soul in earth,

And made a woman glory in his birth),
In marriage opens his inflamed breast;
And lest in him nature should stifled rest,
His genial fire about the world he darts;
Which lips with lips combines, and hearts
with hearts.

Marriage Love's object is; at whose bright eyes

He lights his torches, and calls them his skies.

For her he wings his shoulders; and doth fly

To her white bosom as his sanctuary: In which no lustful finger can profane him,

Nor any earth with black eclipses wane him.

She makes him smile in sorrows, and doth stand

'Twixt him and all wants with her silver hand.

In her soft locks his tender feet are tied;
And in his fetters he takes worthy pride.
And as geometricians have approved
That lines and superficies are not moved
By their own forces, but do follow still
Their bodies' motions, so the self-loved

Of man or woman should not rule in them,

But each with other wear the anadem.1 Mirrors, though decked with diamants,

are nought worth,

If the like forms of things they set not forth;

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Tumble and toss the restless married pair, Each oft offended with the other's air? From whence springs all-devouring avarice, But from the cares which out of wedlock rise?

And where there is in life's best-tempered fires

An end set in itself to all desires,

A settled quiet, freedom never checked; How far are married lives from this effect? Euripus,* that bears ships in all their pride 'Gainst roughest winds with violence of his tide,

And ebbs and flows seven times in every day, Toils not more turbulent or fierce than they.

And then what rules husbands prescribe their wives!

In their eyes circles they must bound their lives.

The moon, when farthest from the sun she shines,

Is most refulgent, nearest, most declines: But your poor wives far off must never


But waste their beauties near their lords at home:

And when their lords range out, at home must hide,

Like to begged monopólies, all their pride.

When their lords list to feed a serious fit, They must be serious; when to shew their wit

In jests and laughter, they must laugh and jest;

When they wake, wake; and when they rest, must rest.

And to their wives men give such narrow scopes,

As if they meant to make them walk on


No tumblers bide more peril of their necks So men or women are worth nothing | In all their tricks, than wives in husbands' neither,

If either's eyes and hearts present not either.

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Where virgins in their sweet and peaceful state,

Have all things perfect; spin their own free fate;

Depend on no proud second; are their


Centre and circle; now and always one. To whose example we do still hear named One God, one nature, and but one world framed,

* A narrow sea between Aulis, a port of Boeotia, and the isle Euboea. See Pomp. Mela lib. 2.

One sun, one moon, one element of fire, So of the rest; one king that doth inspire Soul to all bodies, in their royal sphere.

Truth. And where is marriage more
declared than there?

Is there a band more strict than that doth tie
The soul and body in such unity?
Subjects to sovereigns? doth one mind

In the one's obedience and the other's sway?

Believe it, marriage suffers no compare When both estates are valued as they are. The virgin were a strange and stubborn thing

Would longer stay a virgin than to bring Herself fit use and profit in a make.

Opin. How she doth err, and the whole

heaven mistake!

Look, how a flower that close in closes grows, 1

Hid from rude cattle, bruised with no ploughs, Which th' air doth stroke, sun strengthen, showers shoot higher,


It many youths and many maids desire; The same when cropt by cruel hand is withered,

No youths at all, no maidens have desired: So a virgin, while untouched she doth remain,

Is dear to hers; but when with body's stain Her chaster flower is lost, she leaves to appear

Or sweet to young men, or to maidens dear.

1 Look, how a flower that close in closes grows,


Hid from rude cattle, bruised with no ploughs.] Catullus has again furnished our poet with this and the following speech. could wish he had consulted the ear a little more in the flow of his numbers, that the translation, if possible, might have equalled the delicacy and sweetness of the original: but the closeness of the version must atone for the want of grace.

Ut flos in septis secretus nascitur hortis,
Ignotus pecori, nullo convulsus aratro,
Quem mulcent auræ, firmat sol, educat imber,
Multi illum pueri, muitæ optavere pueliæ:
Idem quum tenui carptus defloruit ungui,
Nulli ilium pueri, nullæ optavere pueliæ:
Sic virgo dum intacta manet,dum cara suis est;
Quum castum amisit polluto corpore florem,
Nec pueris jucunda manet, nec cara pueitis.
The comparison that follows in the speech of
Truth is also as close a copy from the Latin,
and is there put into the mouth of the young


That conquest then may crown me in this


Virgins, O virgins, fly from Hymen far.

Truth. Virgins, O virgins, to sweet
Hymen yield,

For as a lone vine in a naked field
Never extols her branches, never bears
Ripe grapes, but with a headlong heaviness


Her tender body, and her highest sproot
Is quickly levelled with her fading root;
By whom no husbandman, no youths will

But if by fortune she be married well
To the elm her husband, many husband-


And many youths inhabit by her then : So whilst a virgin doth untouched abide,

All unmanured, she grows old with her

But when to equal wedlock, in fit time, pride; Dear to her love and parents she is held. Her fortune and endeavour lets her climb, Virgins, O virgins, to sweet Hymen yield. Opin. These are but words; hast thou a knight will try

By stroke of arms the simple verity?

Truth. To that high proof I would have dared thee.

I'll straight fetch champions for the bride

and me.

Opin. The like will I do for virginity. Here they both descended the hail, where at the lower end, a march being sounded with drums and fifes, there entered (led

2 Which the air doth stroke.] i.e., soothe, encourage, flatter, &c. Jonson frequently uses this word as the translation of mulceo. These speeches, it should be observed, are merely introductory to the Tilting: and seem to aim at nothing more than maintaining a plain contest in plain language. As one of the opponents is Truth, and the other pretends to be Truth, Jonson evidently thought it consistent with the character of the speakers to forego all the graces of invention, and all the ornaments of poetry.

It is fit to observe (to the credit of Hurd's candour), that in his feeble and parasitical endeavours to sacrifice the reputation of Jonson to Milton, Pope, and every poet who happens to come in his way, he has produced the speech of Opinion just noticed, as a general specimen of his most elaborate attempts at translation! "It is (he says) but one instance of a thousand;" and he appears to enjoy by anticipation the marvellous "entertainment,' which he supposes the quotation will afford his friend Mason.

forth by the Earl of Nottingham, who
was Lord High Constable for that night,
and the Earl of Worcester, Earl Mar-
shal) sixteen knights armed with pikes
and swords; their plumes and colours
carnation and white; all richly ac-
coutred, and making their honours to
the state, as they marched by in pairs,
were all ranked on one side of the hall.
They placed sixteen others like accoutred
for riches and arms, only that their
colours were varied to watchet and white;
who were by the same earls led up, and
passing in like manner by the state,
placed on the opposite side.2

By this time, the BAR being brought up,
TRUTH proceeded.

Truth. Now join; and if this varied
trial fail,

To make my truth in wedlock's praise

I will retire, and in more power appear,
To cease this strife, and make our question


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1 Making their honours to the state.] Where James and his Queen sat. State has been already noticed as the raised platform on which the royal seats were placed under a canopy.

2 "The names of the combatants (Jonson says in the 4to) as they were given to me, both in Order and Orthography, were these :-

On the side of

Duke of Lennox.
Lord Effingham.
Lord Walden.
Lord Mounteagle.
Sir Thomas Somerset.
Sir Charles Howard.
Sir John Gray.
Sir Thomas Mounson.
Sir John Leigh.
Sir Robert Maunsell.
Sir Edward Howard.
Sir Henry Goodyere.
Sir Roger Dalison.
Sir Francis Howard.
Sir Lew Maunsell.
Master Gauteret.

On the side of

Earl of Sussex.
Lord Willoughby.
Lord Gerrard.
Sir Robert Carey.
Sir Oliver Cromwel.
Sir William Herbert.
Sir Robert Drewry.
Sir William

three to three and performed it with that alacrity and vigour as if Mars himself had been to triumph before Venus, and invented a new masque. When on a sudden (the last six having scarcely ended) a striking light seemed to fill all the hall, and out of it an ANGEL or messenger of glory appearing.

Angel. Princes, attend a tale of height
and wonder,

Truth is descended in a second thunder,
And now will greet you with judicial state,
To grace the nuptial part in this debate;
And end with reconciled hands these wars.
Upon her head she wears a crown of


Through which her orient hair waves to
her waist,

By which believing mortals hold her fast,
And in those golden cords are carried even,
Till with her breath she blows them up to

She wears a robe enchased with eagles


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3 Her right hand holds a sun, &c.] Milton is greatly indebted to this magnificent portraiture of Truth, although his commentators cannot find it out. The purblind Mr. Bowle runs to a Spanish proverb, and Mr. Warton to Dante. These precious discoveries are carefully treasured up in every edition of this great poet. But indeed nothing can be more amusing than the mode in which Jonson is treated in general.

The Arcades, with the exception of three trifling songs, is made up of the speech of the Genius. Upon which Warton remarks that, "in the King's Entertainment, the Genius speaks somewhat in Milton's manner,' &c. In Milton's manner! If the reader will turn to the Wood-passage (vol. ii. p. 559) he will find that Jonson speaks in his own manner. In whose manner Milton (who was not then born) speaks, is another question. And Mr. Todd "has been induced (he says) to make large extracts from a MS. Masque by Marston, that the reader comprehend the nature of those entertainments." (Arcades, 132.) This is the more kind and considerate, as nothing on this head is to be found elsewhere.

Sir Carey Reynolds.
Sir Richard Houghton
Sir William Constable.
Sir Thomas Gerrard.
Sir Robert Killegrew.
Sir Thomas Badger.
Sir Thomas Dutton.
Master Digbie."


With which heaven's gates she locketh and


A crystal mirror hangeth at her breast, By which men's consciences are searched and drest :

On her coach-wheels Hypocrisy lies racked; And squint-eyed Slander with Vainglory backed

Her bright eyes burn to dust, in which shines Fate:

An angel ushers her triumphant gait, Whilst with her fingers fans of stars she twists,

And with them beats back Error, clad in mists.

Eternal Unity behind her shines,

That fire and water, earth and air combines.

Her voice is like a trumpet loud and shrill, Which bids all sounds in earth and heaven be still.

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To whose right sacred highness I resign Low at his feet, this starry crown of mine To shew his rule and judgment is di vine;

These doves to him I consecrate withal, And see! descended from her chariot now, To note his innocence, without spot, o In this related pomp she visits you.

Enter Truth.


These serpents, for his wisdom: and these rays,

Truth. Honour to all that honour To shew his piercing splendor: these bright


To whose fair lot, in justice now it falls, That this my counterfeit be here disclosed, Who for virginity hath herself opposed. Nor though my brightness do undo her charms,

Let these her knights think, that their equal


Are wronged therein. For valure wins applause,

That dares but to maintain the weaker


And princes, see, 'tis mere Opinion
That in Truth's forced robe, for Truth

hath gone!


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The Hue and Cry after Cupid.

THE HUE AND CRY, &C.-This Masque, which I have called The Hue and Cry after Cupid, bears the following title in the folio, 1616. The Description of the Masque with the Nuptial Songs, at the Lord Viscount Haddington's Marriage at Court, on the Shrove-Tuesday at Night, 1608. The 4to, 1608, adds after Nuptial Songs-" celebrating the happy marriage of John Lord Ramsey, Viscount Hadington, with the Lady Elizabeth Ratcliffe, daughter to the Right Honourable Robert Earl of Sussex.” With this motto:

Acceleret partu decimum bona Cynthia mensem."

This Masque was celebrated with the utmost magnificence. Rowland White, a courtier, and a very intelligent correspondent of the Earl of Shrewsbury, thus writes from Whitehall. "The K. is newlie gon to Tibballes for 6 daies. The Spanish Embassador hath invited the 15 ladies that were of the Qs. maske (the Masque of Beauty, see p. 41), to dinner upon Thursday next, and they are to bring with them whom they please, without limitacion. The great Maske intended for my L. Haddington's marriage is now the only thing thought upon at Court, by 5 English; L. Arundel, L. Pemb. L. Montgomery, L. Theoph. Howard, and Sir Robt. Rich; and by 7 Scottes; D. Lenox, D'Aubigny, Hay, Mr. of Mar, young Erskine, Sankier, and Kenedie: Yt will cost them about 300l. a man."-Lodge's Illustrations, vol. iii. p. 343.

John Lord Ramsey, the bridegroom, was one of the persons present at the assault upon James, Aug. 3, 1600, at Perth, when he killed the Earl of Gowrie with his own hand, and was rewarded with a pension and the title of Viscount Haddington. He was greatly beloved by the king, of which he continued to receive many substantial proofs, till having, in March, 1612, struck another favourite, Philip, Earl of Montgomery, on the race-course at Croydon, he was forbid the Court. James recalled him some time afterwards, and in 1620 created him Baron of Kingston-upon-Thames and Earl of Holderness. [He died, 1625, s.p., when these honours became extinct.-F. C.] The bride, whom Arthur Wilson calls "one of the prime beauties of the kingdom,' did not live to enjoy this last honour. She died of the small-pox, and Bishop Corbet wrote an "Elegia on the occasion, strangely compounded, as the fashion then was, of wit and woe. She was "6 'girl'd and boy'd," he says; but none of her offspring seem to have long survived her.

The worthy custom of honouring worthy marriages with these noble solemnities, hath of late years advanced itself frequently with us; to the reputation no less of our Court than Nobles: expressing besides (through the difficulties of expense and travail, with the cheerfulness of undertaking) a most real affection in the personaters, to those for whose sake they would sustain these persons. It behoves then us, that are trusted with a part of their honour in these celebrations, to do nothing in them beneath the dignity of either. With this proposed part of judgment, I adventure to

that abroad which in my first concep

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tion I intended honourably fit: and though it hath laboured since under censure, I, that know truth to be always of one stature, and so like a rule, as who bends it the least way must needs do an injury to the right, cannot but smile at their tyrannous ignorance that will offer to slight me (in these things being an artificer) and give themselves a peremptory licence to judge who have never touched so much as to the bark, or utter shell of any knowledge. But their daring dwell with them. They have found a place to pour out their follies; and I a seat to sleep out the passage.

The scene to this Masque was a high,

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