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LADY ANNE WINTER,
LADY WINSOR,
LADY ANNE CLIFFORD, 3
LADY MARY NEVILLE,4

LADY ELIZ. HATTON,5
LADY ELIZ. GARRARD,
LADY CHICHESTER.7
LADY WALSINGHAM.8

Lady Anne Winter.) Another daughter of Lord Abergavenny, and daughter of the Lord the Earl of Worcester, and wife of Sir Edward | Treasurer Sackville, Earl of Dorset. Winter, of Lydney, Gloucestershire, Knight. 5 Lady Elizabeth Hatton.) Fourth daughter

2 Lady Winsor.) Either the widow of of Thomas Cecil, first Earl of Exeter, and Henry, fifth Lord Winsor, or her daughter widow of Sir William Hatton. This beautiful Elizabeth, married to her cousin, who bore the creature afterwards married Sir Edward Coke. family name.

A strange match--and which seems to have 3 Lady Anne Clifford.) The daughter of afforded more amusement to the bystanders George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, so re- than comfort to the parties concerned. markable for his naval adventures in the reign 6 Lady Elizabeth Garrard.] Wife of Thomas, of Elizabeth, This lady married some time Lord Gerard, son of Sir Gilbert Gerard, Master after her appearance in the present masque, of the Rolls, 23 Elizabeth. Thomas was raised Richard, third Earl of Dorset, and in 1630 to the Peerage on the accession of James I. Philip, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, She died 1613.. whom she outlived many years. The English 7 Lady Chichester.) Letitia (as I believe), Court, or, to go further, the English nation, daughter of Sir John Perrot, and wife of Sir never possessed a nobler character than this Arthur Chichester (Baron Chichester of Belcelebrated lady. This is no place for her his fast), a man entinent for his great services in tory, of which a spirited sketch is given by Ireland, and of distinguished talents and virtue. Dr. Whitaker : but it is almost impossible to There was indeed another lady of this name : pass her by without noticing her well-known Frances, second daughter of Lord Harrington, answer to Sir Joseph Williamson, Secretary of married to Sir Robert Chichester, of Rawleigh, State to Charles II., who had ventured to name Devon, Knight of the Bath. This lady died in a candidate to her for the borough of Appleby:

-1615, and was buried, as the record says, with “I have been bullied by an usurper; I have “muche solempnitie, in the parrishe church of been neglected by a Court; but I will not be Pylton.' The reader must decide between the dictated to by a subject : your man shan't stand. claimants.

“Anne Dorset, Pembroke, & Montgomery. 8 Lady Walsingham.] Probably Anne,

[There is, I believe, some doubt as to the fourth daughter of Theophilus, second Earl of authenticity of this letter.-F. C.]

Suffolk, and wife of Thomas Walsingham, of • Lady Mary Neville.] Wife of Henry, seventh Scadbury, in Kent.

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Hymenæi; or the Solemnities of Masque

and Barriers at a Marriage.

11

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HYMENÆI ; OR THE SOLEMNITIES OF MASQUE AND BARRIERS AT A MARRIAGE.] This is the title in the fol. 1616. Upon which Chetwood remarks: -"What reason our author had for not being more particular in the title of this Masque, neither when nor for whom it was performed, we cannot conceive; but we have, with some little search, found out it was ordered by the Court for the celebration of the nuptials between the Palsgrave and the Princess Elizabeth." " This Masque, by the description, was very inagnificent, and the reader may find the expence of the machinery, &c., set down in the cost of that prince's marriage.”Life of Jonson, p. 41.

Chetwood's labour was thrown away. Had he fortunately met with the 4to edition of this Masque, he would ave found all his doubts removed. There title-page runs, Hymena, or the Solemnities of Masques and Barriers, magnificently performed on the eleventh and twelfth nights from Christmas at Court; to the auspicious celebrating of the Marriage-union betweene Robert, Earle of Essex, and the Lady Frances, second daughter of the most noble Earle of Suffolke, 1606.

Jam veniet virgo, jam dicetur Hymenæus." The author's reason for “not being more particular" is now sufficiently apparent. The marriage was a most inauspicious one, and terminated in shame and guilt. The Earl of Essex (only son of the unfortunate favourite of Elizabeth and the English nation) was in his fifteenth, and the Lady Frances in her fourteenth year, when the ceremony took place. Not long afterwards the Earl set out on his travels, and was abroad about four years. The Countess, who in the interim had transferred her affections to Robert Carr, Viscount Rochester, the well known minion of James, was with difficulty persuaded to thabit with her husband, whom, after a series of bickering, little to the honour of any of he parties concerned, she finally abandoned in 1613. She then solicited and obtained a divorce, under a pretence of his being incompetent to the duties of matrimony, and on the 5th of December in the same year espoused Carr, who had been created the day before Earl of Somerset.

This infamous connexion led to the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, the execution of the minor agents in that diabolical transaction, and the trial and condemnation of the Earl and Countess, whose lives, though spared by the weakness of James, were worn out in mutual disgust. Somerset died neglected and despised, and his wife an object of loathing and horror. Essex (the repudiated husband) lived to be a famous rebel, and to command the Parliamentary army with skill and success till he sunk under the ascendancy of Cromwell.

It is to Jonson's praise that he took no part in the celebration of the second marriage, which was solemnized with great pomp, and for which a Masque was composed by Campion, a writer of some name. It is melancholy to reflect that this adulterous marriage was eagerly promoted by the Lord Chancellor Bacon, to whom Campion inscribed his performance, "he being (as the dedication says) the Principall, and in effect the onely person that did both incourage and warrant the gentlemen (of Graies Inn) to shew their good affection towards so noble a Conjunction.

With respect to the Masque of which Chetwood speaks (and which was written six years after the present), he might have learned from the official papers that it was called the Lord's Masque. It was not written by Jonson, but by Campion, and published by him in ato, 1613. It is of very rare occurrence, but I have been favoured with it from scene being drawn, there was first dis- a turret ; her garments white : and on her covered an altar; upon which was inscribed, back, a wether's fleece hanging down : her in letters of gold,

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zone, or girdle about her waist of white *Ioni.

wool, fastened with the Herculean knot. Oimæ. Mimæ.

In the midst went the Auspices ;** after UNIONI.

them, two that sung, in several coloured

silks. Of which one bore the water, the SACR.

other the fire ; last of all the musicians, tt To this altar entered five pages, attired diversly attired, all crowned with roses ; in white, bearing five tapers of virgin wax ;t and with this Song began : behind them, one representing a bride- Bid all profane away ; groom : his hair short, and bound with

None here may stay, party-coloured ribbons, and gold twist; his To view our mysteries, garments purple and white.

But who themselves have been, On the other hand, entered HYMEN (the Or will in time be seen, god of marriage) in a saffron-coloured robe,' The self-same sacrifice. his under vestures white, his socks yellow, For Union, mistress of these rites, a yellow veil of silk on his left arm, his Will be observed with eyes head crowned with roses and marjoram, As simple as her nights. in his right hand a torch of pine-tree.!

Cho. After him a youth attired in white, 1

Fly then all profane away, bearing another light, of white thorn ;

Fly far off as hath the day; under his arm, a little wicker flasket shut :

Night her curtain doth display, behind him two others in white, the one

And this is Hymen's holy-day. bearing a distaff, the other a spindle. Betwixt these a personated bride, supported, The song being ended, Hymen presented her hair flowing, and loose, sprinkled with himself foremost, and, after some sign of gray; on her head a gyrland of roses, like admiration, began to speak.

*

Mystically implying that both it, the place, This (by the ancients) was called Camillus, and all the succeeding ceremonies, were sacred quasi minister (for so that signified in the to marriage, or Union ; over which Juno was | Hetrurian tongue), and was one of the three president: to whom there was the like altar which by Sex. Pompei. were said to be Patrimi erected at Rome, as she was called Juga Juno, et Matrimi, Pueri prætextati tres, qui nubenin the street, which thence was named Juga- tem deducunt: unus, qui facem præfert ex rius. See Fest. ; and at which altar the rite spina alba. Duo qui tenent nubentem. To was to join the married pair with bands of silk, which confer that of Varro, lib. 6 de lingua in sign of future concord.

Lat. Dicitur in nuptiis camillus, qui cumerıım † Those were the Quinque Cerei, which fert. As also that of Fest. lib. 3. Cumerum Plutarch in his Quast. Roman. mentions to be vocabant antiqui vas quoddam quod opertum used in nuptials.

in nuptiis ferebant, in quo crant nubentis uten1 The dressing of the bridegroom (with the silin, quod et camillum dicebant: eo quod ancients) was chiefly noted in that. Quod ton- sacrorum ministrum rájilov appellavant. deretur. Juv. Sat. 6. Jamque à tonsore ** Auspices were those that handfasted the magistro Pecteris. And Lucan, lib. 2, where married couple ; that wished them good luck: he makes Cato negligent of the ceremonies in that took care for the dowry; and heard them marriage, saith, Ile nec horrificam sancto profess that they came together for the cause of dimovit ab ore Cæsariem.

children. Juven. Sat. 10, Veniet cum signa§ See how he is called out by Catullus in toribus auspex. And Lucan, lib. 2, Junguntur Nup. Jul. et Manl. Cinge tempora floribus taciti, contentique auspice Bruto. They are Suave olentis amaraci, &c.

also styled Pronubi, Proxeneta, Paranymphi. || For so I preserve the reading there in t1 The custom of music at nuptials is clear in Catul. Pineani quate tadam, rather than to all antiquity. Ter. Adel. act. 5. Verum hoc change it Spineam; and moved by the autho- mihi mora est, Tibicinn, et Hymenæum qui rity of Virgil in Ciri. where he says, Pronuba cantent. And Claud. in epithal. Ducant pernec castos incendet Pinus aniores. And Ovid, vigiles carmina tibia, &C. Fast. lib. 2. Expectet puros pinen tæda dies. inough I deny not there was also spinea tada, I

1 On the other hand, entered Hymen in a &c., which Pliny calls Nuptiarum facibus auspicatissimam, Nat. Hist. lib. 16, cap. 18, and safiron-coloured robe, &c.] It is to this that

Milton alludes: whereof Sextus Pompeius Fest. hath left so particular testimony. For which see the fol

Then let Hymen oft appear lowing note.

In saffron robe, &c.

Hy.

What more than usua llight,
Throughout the place extended,

Makes Juno's fane so bright !
Is there some greater deity descended ?

Or reign on earth those Powers
So rich, as with their beams

Grace U ion more than ours ;
And bound her influence in their happier

streams?
"Tis so : this same is he,
The king, and priest of peace :

And that his empress, she,
That sits so crowned with her own

increase !
O you, whose better blisses
Have proved the strict embrace

Of Union, with chaste kisses,
And seen it flow so in your happy

That know how well it binds
The fighting seeds of things,

Wins natures, sexes, minds,
And every discord in true music brings:

Sit now propitious aids,
To rites so duly prized ;

And view two noble maids,
Of different sex, to Union sacrificed.

In honour of that blest estate,
Which all good minds should celebrate.

Here out of a microcosm or globe (see p. 30 a)

. figuring man, with a kind of contentious music, issued forth the first inasque of eight men. *

These represented the four Humourst and four Affections, all gloriously attired, distinguished only by their several ensigns and colours : and, dancing out on the stage, in their return at the end of

race ;

1

* Whose names as they were then marshalled by couples, I have heraldry enough to set down. LORD WILLOUGHBY,'

Sır THOMAS HOWARD,5
LORD WALDEN,

Sir Thomas SOMERSET, 6
SIR JAMES HAY, 8

EARL OF ARUNDEL,?
EARL OF MONTGOMERY,'

SIR JOHN ASHLY. 8 | Lord Willoughby.] William, third Lord esteemed by the King, and in 1626 created Willoughby of Parham; he was a performer in Viscount Somerset of Cashel. the masque exhibited at Court on the marriage ? Earl of Arundel.]. Thomas Howard, son of Sir Philip Herbert, so often mentioned. His of that Earl of Arundel, who died in the Tower, lady was Frances, daughter of John, fourth 1595, and grandson of Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Rutland.

beheaded on account of his connexion with ? Lord Walden.) Theophilus, eldest son of Mary, Queen of Scots. He is called the young the Earl of Suffolk. He married Elizabeth, Earl of Arundel by Mr. Chamberlaine, at this daughter of the Earl of Dunbar, and died 1640. period, and if the dates in Collins's Peerage This nobleman was called up to the House of may be trusted, he could not be more than Peers in his father's lifetime (1603) by the sixteen. When he married I know not, but in title of Lord Howard of Walden.

1607, when he was little more than eighteen, 3 Sir James Hay.). Son of Sir James Hay, James stood godfather to his first son. It is of Kingask; he came into England in the suite therefore possible, and indeed probable, that of James, by whom he was greatly esteemed, the Countess of Arundel, who performed in the and successively created Baron Sowlie, Vis- Masque of Beauty, (p. 16), was the wife, and count Doncaster, and finally Earl of Carlisle. not the mother of this nobleman. She was the He continued a favourite under this and the Lady Alithea Talbot, third daughter of Gilbert, following reign, and died in 1636, having re- Earl of Shrewsbury. With respect to Lord ceived more grants and spent more money than Arundel, he was one of the brightest characters any man of that age. He married, Lord Cla- of the Court. We are indebted to him for the rendon says, a beautiful young lady, daughter Arundel marbles. to the Earl of Northumberland.

8 Sir John Ashly.] Unknown to me; but * Earl of Montgomery.] Philip Herbert, probably Sir John Cooper, who married Anne, brother to the Earl of Pembroke.

daughter and sole heir of Sir Antony Ashley 5 Sir Thomas Howard.] Probably a cousin (a famous soldier under Elizabeth), and who, of Lord Arundel. He is mentioned in a letter with the immense property, might also enjoy to the Earl of Shrewsbury, as preparing for the name of his father-in-law. Sir John was the

journey to France with Lord Cranborn:” but father of Antony Ashley Cooper, first Earl of I know nothing more of him. Lodge's Illus. Shaftesbury. vol. iii. 366.

6 Sir Thomas Somerset.] Third son of + That they were personated in men hath Edward, fourth Earl of Worcester. He was sent already come under some grammatical excepby the privy council to announce to James the tion. But there is more than grammar to redeath of Elizabeth, was much and deservedly | lease it. For besides that humores and affectus

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