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of self reliance, but when local unions involved in a life and death struggle with well organized and financed employers' associations call for assistance, the situation is discouraging and embarrassing.

The unfavorable reception of the proposed assessment for strike purposes of an amount equal to one day's wages each year was not surprising. The amount was rather large and the assessment plan is always unpopular. The problem is still with us, however, and will stay with us until we find some satisfactory solution.


The death and disability fund has been on the new basis for about a year but the death rate and, consequently, the amount paid out in benefits fluctuate so greatly that it is impossible, as yet, to form an intelligent opinion as to whether the present income will be permanently adequate. The first half of the period showed a substantial gain in the balance in the fund, the second half a loss. The number of claims on which the larger amounts are allowed steadily grows greater absolutely and relatively-which indicates the need for rigid economy. Some saving might be made if in cases where a local union is the beneficiary not more than $100 was allowed, any excess amount due remaining in the fund. It is unnecessary for a local union to receive $300.00 when the expense incurred amounts, perhaps, to less than $100.00.

By way of illustration: A member recently died leaving no known relatives. He had been ten years in good standing and the local union that is his beneficiary demands the full three hundred dollars, regardless of the fact that the deceased member had three hundred dollars in the bank out of which his funeral expenses were paid. Insisting on its pound of flesh, the local union draws three hundred dollars from the Death and Disability Fund and is at no expense and no trouble other than the submission of the claim.

The other funds are holding their own. The expenditures of the Organizing and Defense Funds can be regulated to conform to their incomes.

The expense of the referendum election has prevented the growth of the balance in the General Fund, but from now on it should show a satisfactory increase.

The return of the U. B. of Carpenters and Joiners to the Building Trades Department will make possible a reduction in the per capita tax to that organization and at the same time will add greatly to its efficiency and strength.

Alteration Painters.

About a year ago a movement was started to organize the painters employed in the Hebrew shops of New York's east side, who were working from daylight to dark for a beggarly pittance. As the organization gained strength it called strikes and succeeded in raising the wages of its members to $2.50, $3.00 and, in a few instances, $3.50 per day. Some months ago its officers applied to the Brotherhood for a charter and asked that the members of the independent union be admitted at a nominal initiation fee.

The unions affiliated with D. C. No. 9 refused to grant the request on the ground that, (1) the majority of the men in question are unable to command the union scale of wages, and (2) that those eligible can join the existing unions whenever they apply for n embership in the usual manner.

The applicants have decided to maintain their independent organization and to continue to organize the men employed upon a class of work upon which it is difficult to enforce the established scale.

There is no necessity, and no room in the American labor movement, for two national organizations of painters. Every man who works at the trade should be a member of the Brotherhood and we hope the members of the independent union will abandon their request for concessions and special privileges and apply for admission to the Brotherhood.

The Federation of Federations.

At a largely attended convention, held in Kansas City during May, a new organization of railroad men was launched. The unit of the organization is the system federation, a combination of the unions of the various crafts on any given railroad and the membership is made up exclusively of railroad men. The contention is that this form of organization is more democratic, effective and satisfactory than the Railroad Dep: rtment of the A. F. of L., the unit of which is the International Union, only a portion of the membership of which, in most instances, is employed in the railroad industry. The President and the Secretary-Treasurer of the new organization were chosen from the rank and file, the Executive Board consisting of the National Officers of the affiliated trades..

The railroad Brotherhoods are eligible to admission provided they express their intention of affiliating with the A. F. of L. within a given time.

The majority of the National Organizations which constitute the Railway Department of the A. F. of L. were represented

The World's Standard Lamp Blacks



Originators of the famous GERMANTOWN BRANDS. Old Standard, Eagle, Pyramid, and Globe.
So often imitated, but never equaled. Beware of the NEAR Germantown.
Quality is remembered long after price is forgotten.


Established 1849.




and a meeting of the Department is to be called at which it will be proposed to dissolve that organization or consolidate it with the Federation of Federations which will then apply for a charter from the A. F. of L.

Our Health.

Several states have followed the example of Illinois in enacting legislation for the prevention of occupational diseases. Το this end, in industries in which men are compelled to work with poisonous materials such as white lead, employers are required to provide washing facilities, dressing rcoms and lunch rooms. Inquiry is being made as to the effects of all materials used in different industries and before long, we hope, proper restrictions will be thrown around the use of wood alcohol, turpentine substitutes, paint and varnish removers, and other materials introduced from time time, as well as of our old stand-bys, turpentine and varnish.


As a result of these investigations and the legislation that will follow, we can hope for a marked improvement in the health and an increase in the average length of life of the men who follow our trade. Our district councils and local unions in every state should see that this subject is brought to the attention of their state legislators and that it receives proper attention.

Labor Legislation.

The approach of the general election has stimulated the interest of Congress in legislation affecting the workers. The eighthour law, while not yet perfect, has been greatly improved. It now applies to the manufacture and preparation of materials used in vessels, buildings, bridges and other engineering undertakings as well as to their construction or erection. Unless some loophole is discovered, the ship building concerns and general contractors that have a monopoly on government work will be com

pelled to adopt the eight hour day.

The Clayton bills forbidding the abuse of the injunction power of the courts in labor disputes and legalizing peaceful picketing and providing for a trial by jury in contempt cases, have passed the House. Whether the majority of the members who voted "aye" were sincere, or were merely seeking to square themselves with organized laborin the expectation and secret hope that the Senate will defeat them-makes no difference, provided that august body of the ancients makes the measures law.

We accept these small favors without gratitude, as none is due. There is no evidence of a change of heart or of an awakening of conscience among old party politicians. More firmly than ever are we convinced that the workers must take independent political action to secure the enactment of legislation that will materially benefit the mass of the people.

The election of a few members of state legislatures and of Congress, directly representing the men of the factory, the shop, the mine and the farm, would wring many concessions from the representatives of the employing class and the moneyed interests that furnisa the campaign funds and dictate the policy of both of the great "parties," which are merely two divisions of the one and the same party masquerading under different names and waging mimic warfare.

The workers have never been granted anything; everything we have, we have taken. All we need expect or hope to get is that we are strong enough to take. We have nothing to lose by severing all relations with those who have constantly misrepresented us, persistently ignored our interests and deliberately connived and assisted in our exploitation. The assertion of our independence will arouse a respect for our intelligence, a tribute the absence of which has, perhaps, been justified.

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Of Interest to the Trade

What will happen when the human race as a whole will be taking part in the intellectual labor which is the labor proper to our species; when it shall be given all men to apply themselves to the task at present reserved to a few friends of chance?

-Maurice Maeterlinek.



HE Romans, who have been considered the law-givers of the world, had little time, in their struggle for the possession of colonies and wealth, to found their own style of art. It copied directly from the Greek, but so adapted Greek principles that when the luxury of the nation permitted, it was possible to develop a high type of Roman art. The foundation, however, is Greek, as is seen in the pillars used. With but few changes the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders were transplanted to Roman soil. In addition to these, two other orders were developed: the TusIcan and the Composite.

The Etruscans, called the early Italians, for the time of their settling in Italy is unknown, produced the Tuscan order. The best examples of their art, which the later Italians copied, are dated about 750 B. C. The general style of the Tuscan is simple, consisting of plain unfluted column and simple entablature.

The Composite grew out of the desire to produce an original type of pillar. The Ionic and Corinthian were combined, the upper part following the plan of the former and the lower that of the latter. The Corinthian detail was, however, elaborated.

The materials used by the Romans produced a construction that differed in some respects from the Greek. The marble and brick were used by both, but the cement, possible through the sands found in Italy, permitted the Roman architects to cover the perpendicular walls with a vaulted roof or dome. The Pantheon at Rome is an excellent example of this style.

One interesting feature of the Roman art may be touched upon. The deity worship, similar to that of the Greeks, though more political, was undermined through outside influences, such as wars, etc., until it fell into seeming decay. Christianity as directly opposed to the deity worship was, however, through the great efforts of Constantine, 306-337 A. D., instrumental in reviving it. The Roman art therefore covers the period 750 B. C. to 445 A. D.

The Roman type of building, found wherever the Romans planted their power, as in England, is often circular in form, showing the various orders and characteristic Roman decoration. Carved friezes were used as in the Greek for both exterior and interior. The carving was not as refined as that of the Greek. The pineapple, vine, palm, ivy, poppy, winged dolphins and winged horses make up the ornamentation. Garlands and bands of fruit are especially characteristic of the more luxurious age of the Emperors and are found on the triumphant arches, erected at times of victory in war. Many borders, consisting of the acanthus leaf, elongated into a scroll and combined with rosettes, are used. From these were derived many of the elabo rate Renaissance borders.

The Colosseum, familiar to all, is another example of the Roman architecture, while the Basilicas, or Halls of Justice, said to be some of the finest buildings erected by the Romans, show the link between Classic and Christian architecture. The latter copied the plan of these buildings in erecting places of worship, and it

may not be improbable that this was the beginning of Gothic architecture, although authorities differ on this point.

The decoration, as in the Greek, was confined to borders and friezes against plain walls, but in the Roman it was not so much a part of the structure. The cement walls were generally highly polished and in addition to the mural paintings on such a surface, mosaic was also introduced. The mural paintings can be divided into four classes: 1st, Fresco painting; 2d, Tempera painting; 3d, Varnish painting; 4th, Caustic painting. Much gold was introduced, producing a rich appearance. Rich and pure colors predominated.


The Renaissance, like the Gothic, pervaded the greater portion of western Europe, including Italy and replaced the Gothic during the Fifteenth Century. In Italy, where the Gothic had never gained a strong foothold, the Renaissance was immediately adopted, and as many of the Roman buildings could be studied without difficulty it was rapidly perfected. The rebirth, after the Middle Ages, awakened the desire for a revival of literature and the Greeks were al lowed access to Italy. The Greek artists, with their splendid knowledge of Greek principles, assisted in building up the Renaissance from the Greek as well as the Roman.

In England, however, the Renaissance was reluctantly accepted after it had spread to France, Germany, Spain and the Netherlands. The main characteristics prevailing in these countries, can only be touched upon, for the study seems well nigh inexhaustible, especially in England. Here the study of the Tudor and Elizabethan is necessary in connection with the Renaissance, and in fact some authorities divide the English Renaissance into the Elizabethan (15581603), Jacobean (1603-1625), Anglo-Classic Seventeenth Century, Queen Anne and Georgian Eighteenth Century, and early and late Victoria Ninetenth Century. This shows that the effects of the introduction of the Renaissance completely changed even to a very late date the general character and style of art.

We can readily appreciate, that the five orders of the Greek and Roman combined, would play an important part in the Renaissance buildings. As the artists had recourse to both the best of Greek and Roman they produced a type of building that met the requirements of the age and was suggestive of the freer intercourse and broader vision. Still many of these men were pic

torial artists and treated the building as a picture, introducing detail that was not a part of the structure. Pillars were no longer used for support, but placed flat against the inner or outer walls as decoration. The pilaster resulted. Instead of retaining the flutes, the face of the pilaster was decorated in low relief, filling in with one or more panels. Intricate detail was shown, the acanthus leaf with rosettes predominating. Later garlands of fruit, surrounding a symbol of art, music, literature or sculpture, etc., as well as the plain shields or cartouche, made up the pane! decoration. The borders and friezes of the classic styles were changed as the pillars. but what they gained in detail they lost in strength. The results, however, were more in keping with the whole structure and suggestive of the character of the people of the age covered by the growth of the Renais


In Italy the Renaissance was perpetuated in the church structures as few ecclesiastical buildings had been erected during the Gothic, while in the other localities where the opposite was true, the efforts were directed to public buildings, country houses, palaces, tombs, chapels, gateways, etc.

While the Renaissance shows the development from the Classic, it is a pure type in itself. We can find traces of it in the flat pilasters, relief mouldings, etc., of the Colonial of our own age, which was derived from the Georgian.-The Colorist.

By W. Lincoln Phillips, in Typographical Journal.
Who lives midst the roar of a thousand wheels,
And labors with hand and brain:
Who works till the only sense he feels,
Is a body racked with pain.
Who stands to the furnace fiery breath,
And broils in the heated blast;
Who labors on to the day of death,

When his sorrow is spent and past.
Who digs in the caverns dark and deep,
With a thousand dangers nigh;
Knows not the day when his children weep,
Because he is called to die.

Who fells the forest and tills the land,
And builds and plants and reaps;
Who labors with heart and mind and hand,
And groans with pain when he sleeps.
Who labors on by the burning light,

With fingers and eyes that are sore;
When others rest in the silent night

And dream on some beautiful shore.
Who labors and starves that she may live,
A life unstained from sin;
With no one a helping hand to give

And no one to aid her to win.
Who blesses the land in ten thousand ways,
With that which is made and grows;
With, scarcely enough to eat through their days,
And hardly a change of clothes.
Who labors and suffers, and starves and dies,
With never a thought to shirk;
The answer comes back with a million cries;
"The men and women who work."

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