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John Lucas & Co.

Paint and Varnish Manufacturers since 1849.



without skinning ourselves, or permitting some of us to skin the rest of us with the knife of "public enterprise for private profit."

It's quite a jump from Panama to Alaska, and there's some difference between digging a canal and digging coal. but we can make Alaska an experiment station, and "difference" is a big factor in scientific experimentation.

We have vast coal fields in Alaska; great coal fields owned by us. We are actually running a coal mine owned by us, and private enterprise has shown us how not to mine coal as well as how to mine it.

Any reason why we can't dig our own coal in Alaska, out of our own coal deposits? Any reason why we can't build and operate our own railroads in Alaska, running them into our coal fields and bringing our coal in our cars over our tracks to our shipping ports, there to be loaded into

our ships, brought to our public docks on the Pacific and Atlantic Coasts, and sell it to ourselves out of our coal bunkers? Long ago Brutus said, "I pause for a reply." Well, that's what I'm doing.

This coming winter, and the next and the next, we shall need coal at reasonable prices more than we need the Panama Canal. We don't need a canal to furnish heat; we can't cook breakfast with a canal; and possibly that's the reason the Guggen. morgans permitted us to build our Own canal.

Then, we have a few water-power sites left unmorganheimed, and they mean heat, power, and light. Can't we do something for ourselves with our water powers? Crazy? Of course we are.

But having made a good beginning, and since we are getting a reputation for craziness, let's make a good job of it.


Progress of 1911.

S a result of the widespread movement for reform in dealing with industrial injuries, ten states have this year passed laws providing accident compensation for injured employes, and six states, for the first time in America, now require the reporting of several welldefined occupational diseases and industrial poisonings," says the Review of Labor Legislation of 1911, just issued from its New York headquarters by the American Association for Labor Legislation.

Workmen's Compensation and Insurance

The scheme of elective compensation is adopted in California, Illinois, Kansas, New Hampshire, New Jersey and Wisconsin-the employer who does not "elect" to come under the law depriving himself of all the old time defenses which enabled him

in the past to evade responsibility for the injury or death of his employes through accident; compulsory compensation, modified by the rule of comparative negligence, in Nevada; an elective insurance system in Massachusetts and Ohio; and in Washington a state insurance system compulsory as to certain enumerated employments and elective as to all others. The employer bears the cost in all states except Ohio, where the employe contributes 10 per cent. of the insurance fund. In half of the states the laws apply to a specified list of dangerous employments, but in California, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Ohio (where five or more are employed) and Wisconsin (except casual) all employments are covered.

New commissions to study the subject of compensation for accidents, are created

this year in nine states, making a total of twenty-one commissions on this job during the last three years. Many states are changing their existing liability laws by taking away the defences of the employer, and making recovery of damages more easy for the workman. In Wisconsin no release signed by an injured employee within seventy-two hours after suffering an accident can be used against him when seeking damages. More complete reports of accidents are required in thirteen states.

Diseases of Occupation.

"The campaign of the Association for Labor Legislation to promote the study and prevention of diseases due to occupation, has already borne fruit. Six states (California, Connecticut, Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan and New York), for the first time in America, now require physicians to report cases of industrial diseases. These diseases include lead poisoning which endangers the lives of workmen in 138 trades; the loathsome "phossy jaw" which disfigures those who work with poisonous phosphorus in our match factories; the hatters' "shakes" due to mercurial poisoning; the caisson workers' "bends;" anthrax; and poisoning from arsenic." Occupational disseases will be investigated in Ohio and the evils of poor factory lighting, in Massachusetts. Special protection for employees engaged in peculiarly dangerous processes, involving the use of poisonous lead is provided for in Illinois.

Accident Prevention.

The terrilbe loss of human life through factory fires has led many states to provide better protection against fire. Standards of safety are raised in many states and Pennsylvania now provides for fire drills in all industrial establishments where women or girls are employed. The conditions under which manufacturing in lofts is carried on is now under investigation in New York.

The Review notes a marked tendency to strengthen the laws relating to the protection of workingmen from dangerous machinery in factories and workshops, as well as in mines, by allowing the inspectors to close down any establishment or to prohibit the use of any particular machine which is dangerous to employees.


Because of frequent disasters, causing great loss of life several states have established Mining Boards, and the mining laws of a number of states are completely revised. Several other states have greatly increased the protection for miners with

special reference to ventilation and to the prevention of fires and explosions.

Building Construction.

Building trades men will watch with great interest the results of the laws of Nebraska, Indiana and Oregon, for the prevention of accidents in building construction. The latter is especially important since it is coupled with the liability law which takes away the chief defences of the employers in case of suit for damages.

Workingmen who are employed in underground rooms or manholes and on street cars, or who operate corn husking or shredding machines, also receive additional legal protection.


Fifteen states enacted new laws for the protection of railroad employes against accident. These laws relate to the authority and duties of railroad commissions, to adequate train crews, to standards for caboose cars, to experience or training for engineers, firemen, conductors, brakemen or signal men, to air brakes and to the safeguarding of frogs and switches. New regulations concerning the height of bridges, automatic bell ringers and signal lights on switches, sheds to protect employes on repair work, are also enacted. Railroad commissions in several states are given authority to make and enforce whatever rules they deem necessary to prevent accidents. Child Labor.

"The year 1911 has been one of remarkable progress in regulating child labor in the United States. No previous year has equalled this either in the total number of acts passed relating to child labor or in the aggregate number of States affected."

The campaign begun against the employment of boys in the night messenger service on account of its unquestioned moral dangers resulted this year in legislation in eight states. Important restrictions to regulate street trading are enacted in five states, hours of labor for children are shortened in ten states, and the eight hour day for all children under 16 is established for the first time in Colorado, Missouri, and Wisconsin. Children under 16 have been excluded from all night work for the first time in six states, while California has excluded all under eighteen after 10 P. M.

"As will be noted the greatest amount of legislation was passed in the most advanced industrial states while very little was secured in the southern states."

Enforcement of the Law.

"The most important administrative measure," says this Review, "and perhaps

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the most significant labor law of the year, is the act creating the Wisconsin industrial Commission. This is the first thorough-going attempt to provide for the establishment through state authority of definite occupational standards of safety and at the same time to give our labor law greater elasticity through the work of experts clothed with the power of issuing orders."

A tendency toward specialization within departments is illustrated by the employment of a physician in Illinois and by the appointment of an inspector of safety devices in Texas. In several states inspection bureaus or departments have been reorganized and Georgia has created a Department of Commerce and Labor.

Woman's Work.

The movement for the eight-hour day for women is gaining ground, as is evident from the fact that California and Washington enacted eight-hour laws for women, and similar bills were hard fought for in Illinois, Ohio and Wisconsin. Massachusetts reduced the working hours of women from fifty-six to fifty-four a week, and enacted a law prohibiting the employment of women for two weeks before and four weeks after childbirth.

In three states bills were presented relating to the establishment of minimum wage boards. The Minnesota and Wisconsin bills, which provided for the creation of such boards, were defeated, but the Massachusets bill, which provided for a commission will report in January, 1912.


The establishment in New York of the first American industrial farm colony for tramps and vagrants is an especially significant step. It marks a belated tendency to recognize the presence of unemployment, which statistics show is increasing. Illinois authorized the appointment of a woman investigator of domestic employment agencies, and in other states laws were enacted protecting private agencies and establishing or extending public employment offices. The commission which has been investigating employment agencies in Massachussetts is continuing its work.

Trade Disputes.

Little direct legislation nas been enacted during the past year upon the important subject of the settlement of strikes. Massachusetts has taken her lesson from England and has made it legal for a union to impose fines upon its members. Four states have

endeavored to prevent the breaking of strikes through employes secured under false pretenses, and Colorado has made illegal the type of labor contract which has been used, by mine operators and others, since the labor disturbances of 1904, to prevent the growth of trade unions by forbidding an employe to join trade organizations. Several states have attempted to prevent black-listing by requiring employes to give explicit letters stating cause of dismissal, and Connecticut has carefully regulated the conduct of blacklisting agencies. The Wisconsin law, requiring the publication of contracts or agreements between employers and employes, which has long been urged by socialists and trade unionists, is also interesting.


New York has passed three laws for the protection of immigrants, in connection with immigrant lodging places, the surrender of tickets of immigrant passengers, and with the selling of transportation to or from foreign countries. Congress is petitioned for legislation restricting immigration, and New Jersey has appointed a commission to study the subject.

Hours of Labor.

The long fought battle in Massachusetts for an effective eight-hour law on public work has at last brought results. Wisconsin also amends her eight-hour law by making the proved fact of work for more than eight hours, prima facie evidence of a violation and by carefully defining the meaning of "emergency;" the federal eight-hour law for navy employes was also strengthened. For private employments, Connecticut passed a "one day rest in seven" law; the eight-hour laws in several mining states, were strengthened; and the hours of work for railroad employes are regulated in four more states.

Prepare for 1912.

During the next few months several leading industrial states will be face to face with this problem of progressive legislation. Every union man should study proposed measures, point out their good features and their shortcomings in the union and central body and see that the local assemblyman and senator are advised of the wishes of those, their constituents who are members of organized labor.



ENJAMIN C. MARSH, of New York,

whose long association with charity dolers and official connection with charity organizations, enables him to speak with authority, shocked the smug, self-satisfied philanthropists of Boston by the following remarks before the Twentieth Century Club:

"You have here in Boston overseers of the poor, but I want to tell you that what you need is overseers of the rich. Among the worst exploiters of the poor are the directors of the great charities. Anyone who studies the directors' list of our great charities will see this. I wish we could put up against the directors of all the charities who own the land the men who would like to work the land and let them take their coats off and settle the question to whom the land should belong as it was settled in the first place.

"I am always in doubt whether the directors of our charities should be sent to institutions for the insane or to institutions for the criminal. I am

always glad to have all evidence possible on the subject. What do you pay unskilled wage earners in Boston? I am told the maximum is $10 or $12 a week. Well, to give the philanthropists the benefit of the doubt-you have got to give philanthropists all the benefit of the doubt-you have got to give philanthropists all the benefit of the doubt or else you couldn't stand them in the same city with you for a week -you charge these unskilled laborers at least $144 to $160 a year for three good rooms. No man ought to be obliged to pay more than 20 per cent of his earnings for rent, no matter what your rent is. I am satisfied that we have got to come to this conclusion before we determine what standards of living are.

"Every cent of every dollar taken by the owner of the land above the rent to which he may be entitled is robbery of the poor. In practically every American city and State the real estate interests own and control the legislative body of the city and State."


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Spar Finishing Varnish

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F. R. Seaver, Darien, Wis., says: "Your Spar Finishing Varnish works splendidly and is durable."

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Prove "Spar" works so freely it will save you money-is so durable it will build you trade.

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(Below is the Eight-Hour bill as it passed the House. It is now in the hands of the Senate. The provisions of the bill are commented upon in the editorial columns.)

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E IT enacted by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that every contract hereafter made to which the United States, any territory, or the District of Columbia is a party, and every such contract made for or on behalf of the United States, or any territory, or said district, which may require or involve the employment of laborers or mechanics, shall contain a provision that no laborer or mechanic doing any part of the work contemplated by the contract, in the employ of the contractor or any sub-contractor contracting for any part of said work contemplated, shall be required or permitted to work more than eight hours in any one calendar day upon such work; and every such contract shall stipulate a penlty for

each violation of such provision in such contract of five dollars for each laborer or mechanic for every calendar day in which he shall be required or permitted to labor more than eight hours upon said work; and any officer or person designated as inspector of the work to be performed under any such contract, or to aid in enforcing the fulfillment thereof, shall, upon observation or investigation, forthwith report to the proper officer of the United States, or of any territory, or of the District of Columbia, all violations of the provisions of this act directed to be made in every such contract, together with the name of each laborer or mechanic who has been required or permitted to labor in violation of such stipulation and the day of such violation, and the amount of the penalties imposed according to the stipulation in any such

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