« iepriekšējāTurpināt »
Thus, we have ǝN/ǝps/a/ap = PNS (m*), the average number of prospective subscribers in the marginal libraries. When the basic model is specified this way, PNS (m*) replaces PNS (m*) throughout. The same applies to all the concepts specific to marginal libraries.
This debate was stimulated by the celebrated case of Williams and Wilkins v. U.S. . Summaries of various arguments and positions can be found in .
For example, the analysis of Y. Barzel  rested on the public goods properties of the information disseminated in journals, while it ignored the public nature of library journal collections.
It was Ramsey  who first studied welfare optimal prices under such a constraint. See  for a cogent survey.
4. See Willig , for the development of this general approach.
5. Thus, throughout, we ignore distributional effects.
9. S. Berg's important study of journal demand , overlooked this effect.
See Willig .
See Berg . Research in progress by Y. Braunstein et al.  seems to indicate values of k significantly above 2.
12. See Fry and White .
13. These data for AER and EI are annually released publicly. The editorial offices of JPE and JET specified NS + NL precisely, and offered estimates of NL/NS. While Wiley, the new publisher of QJE, refused to give any information, the editorial office offered estimates of 1975 NS + NL and NL/NS.
14. This equation was estimated by Y. Braunstein , from a 1973 cross-section of 56 technical journals.
15. We assume here that the prices of all costly factors of journal production rose by 25 percent between 1973 and 1975. Both the Wholesale Price Index of book paper and the BLS index of printing trades wages did increase by approximately 25 percent between those dates.
16. See footnote 11.
Of course, the conclusions rest upon the empirically untested
 Y. Barzel, "The Market for a Semipublic Good: The Case of the American Economic Review," American Economic Review, September 1971, 61, 665-74.
 W. J. Baumol and D. F. Bradford, "Optimal Departures from Marginal Cost Pricing," American Economic Review, June 1970, 60, 265-83.
 S. Berg, "An Economic Analysis of the Demand for Scientific Journals," Journal of the American Society for Information Science, January 1972, 23, 23-29.
 M. Boiteux, "Sur la gestion des Monopoles Publics astreints
à l'équilibre budgétaire," Econometrica, January 1956, 24, 22-40.  Y. Braunstein, "Cost Data for Publication of Journals - Preliminary Analysis," Discussion Paper No. 76-02, Center for Applied Economics, New York University, 1976.
 Y. Braunstein, "Economics of Journal Provision," (in progress), New York University.
 B. Fry and H. White, Economics and Interaction of Publisher-Library Relationship in the Production and Use of Scholarly and Research Journals, Final Report, NSF Grant GN-41398, November 1975.
D. W. Katzner, Static Demand Theory. Macmillan:
F. P. Ramsey, "A Contribution to the Theory of Taxation,"
[TO] P. A. Samuelson, "The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure," Review of Economics and Statistics, November 1954, 36, 381-89.
 I. W. Sandberg, "Two Theorems on a Justification of the Multiservice Regulated Company," Bell Journal of Economics, Spring 1975, 6, 346-56.
 United States Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, 93rd Congress,
 The Williams and Wilkins Co. v. The United States, 172 USPQ 670; 478 F. 2d 1345 (180 USPQ 49).
 R. D. Willig, "The Economic Gradient Method," unpublished