Copyright in Computer-readable Works: Policy Impacts of Technological Change
Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology, 1977 - 233 lappuses
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additional application bill broadcast cable charges collection communications compilations compulsory license computer programs computerized concerned Congress considered constitute consumer copy copyright law copyright owners copyright protection costs Court data base decision demand determine discussion distribution documents economic effect established example exclusive right existing fair function further given groups important increase individual infringement input institutional interest involved issues journals legislation limited machine machine-readable major material means mechanisms motion picture noted obtain Office operator optimal organizations output particular payment performance photocopying potential practice present problem producers profit protection publishers question reason recordings reproduction respect result revision royalty rules scientific situation sound specific statute STI system subscribers subscription technical tion users welfare
84. lappuse - ... (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
19. lappuse - The economic philosophy behind the clause empowering Congress to grant patents and copyrights is the conviction that encouragement of individual effort by personal gain is the best way to advance public welfare through the talents of authors and inventors in "Science and useful Arts.
51. lappuse - Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.
72. lappuse - Copyright protection subsists, in accordance with this title, in original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device.
63. lappuse - In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle, or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated, or embodied in such work.
16. lappuse - Sound recordings" are works that result from the fixation of a series of musical, spoken, or other sounds, but not including the sounds accompanying a motion picture or other audiovisual work, regardless of the nature of the material objects, such as disks, tapes, or other phonorecords, in which they are embodied. "State...
45. lappuse - publicly' means: (1) to perform or display it at a place open to the public or at any place where a substantial number of persons outside of a normal circle of a family and its social acquaintances is gathered...
10. lappuse - Though the earth and all inferior creatures be common to all men, yet every man has a property in his own person. This nobody has any right to but himself. The labour of his body, and the work of his hands, we may say, are properly his.
45. lappuse - perform" a work means to recite, render, play, dance, or act it, either directly or by means of any device or process or, in the case of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, to show its images in any sequence or to make the sounds accompanying it audible.
52. lappuse - ... aware or has substantial reason to believe that it is engaging in the related or concerted reproduction or distribution of multiple copies or phonorecords of the same material, whether made on one occasion or over a period of time, and whether intended for aggregate use by one or more individuals or for separate use by the individual members of a group...