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survey of this period evidences the fact that the people had been thinking upon the question, and that careful study and contemplation had resulted in a gratifying conservatism and a growth in intelligence. The crude notions of the Granger period had been superseded by the views of men who had studied the question from more than one point of view. The people had become more tolerant in their bearing, more temperate in their utterances, and more inclined to discuss the question dispassionately. The Commission had performed a great service in removing, to a considerable extent, the spirit of mutual distrust prevalent in the early seventies.

The Board was very successful in settling questions of minor importance in which it was necessary to remove misunderstandings, or call attention of the carriers to matters of complaint, the justice of which was so patent that a simple reminder secured relief. In some notable instances, the Board was remarkably successful in questions of great importance.


But it failed just where control was most needed. was powerless to check that crying evil of railroad transportation, discrimination. The case of the jobbers of the three cities already mentioned1 showed a dissatisfaction with rates, and the condition of things had not improved afterward. Of course, the fact that many of the discriminations involved interstate commerce 2 made the

1 See ante, p. 52.

2" From 18 to 24 per cent is the extreme of our local business. It has never exceeded, since we have had anything to do with it, 24 per cent; and it has never been lower than 18 per cent; and, say, 80 per cent of our business has been what we would call through business." -Testimony of Commissioner Dey before Cullom Committee.

Board powerless under any circumstances, but many of the evils, it was thought, could be remedied if more authority were given to the Board. Hence arose the agitation which resulted in conferring upon the Board

of Railroad Commissioners greater powers.







THE Larrabee case attracted wide attention; and it was expected that the short haul, or Glenwood rate, would be lowered. Instead of that, the company made the mistake of raising the long haul to Council Bluffs. It is quite probable that this action of the railroads, which was afterwards declared to be a blunder, hastened the step which the people were soon to take for a more efficient control of the transportation industry.

The public had become thoroughly aroused through the continued oppressions of the railroads; and seeing the opportunity before them of gaining control of the legislature, which they maintained had previously been dominated by railroad influence, they bent all their energies to the accomplishment of their purpose. A meeting of Iowa manufacturers and jobbers and other shippers was held at Des Moines, Jan. 25, 1888, to consult regarding railroad legislation. Resolutions were adopted advocating laws which should empower the Railroad Commission to control all freight and passen


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