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Income of a non-resident alien and all property belonging to such non-resident alien will be liable to distraint for the tax.84

Paying the Tax. Except in so far as the income tax payable by a non-resident alien is collected at the source, the general provisions in regard to the payment of income taxes apply to non-resident aliens as well as citizens and residents. The tax is payable in four installments, the first installment being paid at the time the return is filed ; the second installment on the 15th day of the third month; the third installment on the 15th day of the sixth month; and the fourth installment on the 15th day of the ninth month, after filing the return. Where an extension of time for filing a return is granted, the time for payment of the first installment is postponed until the expiration of the period of the extension but the time for payment of the other installments is not postponed unless the Commissioner so provides in granting the extension. In any case in which the time for payment of any installment is at the request of the taxpayer thus postponed, interest at the rate of one-half of 1% per month (6% per year) is added as part of the first installment from the time when it was originally due, unless the whole amount of the tax is paid on or before the time the third installment would have been due if no extension had been granted. If any installment is not paid when due, the whole amount of the tax unpaid becomes due and payable upon notice and demand by the collector. The tax may at the option of a non-resident alien be paid in a single payment instead of installments.86 This subject is discussed more fully in another chapter. 87

Abatement and Refund. If upon the filing of the annual return it appears that the non-resident alien is liable for less tax than the amount which has been withheld at the

84 Revenue Act of 1918, $ 217.
85 See Chapter 40 on Collection of Tax at the Source.
86 Revenue Act of 1918, $ 250.
87 See Chapter 35 on Assessment and Payment of the Tax.

source, the Treasury Department will issue instructions to the withholding agents (whose names and addresses should be given by the non-resident alien in his return) to release at once the proper amounts. 88 After the tax has been assessed against the withholding agents by the Government, abatement may be claimed, and after the tax has been paid, refund may be claimed in the manner outlined in a later chapter.89

88 Revenue Act of 1918, 8221 (d); Reg. 45, Art. 369. Telegram from Treasury Department dated January 25, 1917; I. T. 8. 1918,

191.

88 See Chapter 38 on Abatement and Refund.

CHAPTER 6

RESIDENT AGENTS FOR NON-RESIDENT ALIENS, FOREIGN

CORPORATIONS AND FOREIGN PARTNERSHIPS

The 1916 Law expressly provided for the collection at the source of the tax on payment of certain specified forms of income to non-resident aliens and non-resident foreign corporations. The persons required to withhold and account for the tax were designated in the regulations as withholding agents. The Treasury Department, in addition, evolved a method of collecting the tax on income which might pass out of its jurisdiction, by impressing upon residents, under certain circumstances, the duty of filing returns and accounting for the normal tax and the surtax on any and all income of non-resident aliens and non-resident foreign corporations over which they had custody or control. Such persons were held to be agents of the non-residents and to stand in the place of their principals. One who was a withholding agent under the provisions for collecting the tax at the source might, or might not, (depending on the circumstances) also be an agent within the meaning of this chapter. Agents for foreign partnerships were not required to make any returns or pay any tax for the foreign partnership unless and until they were so instructed by the Commissioner. 1 See Chapter 40 on Collection of the Tax at the Source.

2 The Department evidently based its authority for this on Revenue Act of 1916, 8 9 (8), which provided that the tax should be paid by the owner of the income “or the proper representative having the receipt, custody, control or disposal of the same.' T. D. 2452. 3 T. D. 2135.

4 T. D. 2401. This was because a partnership was not itself subject to a tax or required to make returns. See Chapter 11 on Foreign Partnerships.

Ruling Under 1918 Law. The responsible representatives of non-resident aliens in connection with any sources of income which such non-resident aliens may have within the United States shall make a return of such income, and shall pay any and all tax, normal and additional, assessed upon the income received by them in behalf of their nonresident alien principals, in all cases where the tax on income so in their receipt, custody or control shall not have been withheld at the source. The agent of a nonresident alien is responsible for a correct return of all income accruing to his principal within the purview of the agency. The agency appointment will determine how completely the agent is substituted for the principal for tax purposes.

Application of Former Rulings to Present Law. The Revenue Act of 1918 does not contain any provision expressly making an agent liable for the surtaxes imposed upon his principal with respect to income passing through the hands of such agent. The 1916 Law expressly provided 6 that: “The intent and purpose of this title is that all gains, profits, and income of a taxable class, as defined by this title, shall be charged and assessed with the corresponding tax, normal and additional prescribed by this title, and said tax shall be paid by the owner of such income, or the proper representative having the receipt, custody, control, or disposal of the same.” The rulings under the 1916 Law are stated below without attempting to indicate to what extent they may be inapplicable to the present law.

DEFINITION. In order to simplify the discussion in the following pages of this chapter the term "non-residents' will be used to include non-resident aliens, foreign corporations having no office or place of business in this country, and foreign partnerships having no office or place of business in this country.7

5 Reg. 45, Art. 403. 6 Revenue Act of 1916, $ 9 (g). 7 For definition of “foreign corporations'' as used in this book WHO WERE RESIDENT AGENTS. A resident corporation, partnership or individual, might be an agent within the meaning of this chapter. Any residents acting by power of attorney for non-residents were such agents. Responsible heads or representatives who were in charge of property owned or business carried on by non-residents in this country were such agents. Resident nominal stockholders who held stock in their names for non-resident actual cwners were such agents. Residents who had custody of securities of non-residents, on which they collected the income, were agents not only with respect to the income, but also with respect to any profits made from the sale of the securities of which they were custodians, and for the purpose of reporting the latter they were required to obtain all facts necessary to ascertain the profit in any transaction. 10 Residents, purchasing patent rights from nonresidents and paying royalty thereon, were held to be agents.11 Real-estate agents who managed buildings owned by non-residents were such agents.12

WHO WERE Nor Such AGENTS. Corporations paying interest on their own bonds, or dividends on their own stock, to non-residents, bondholders or stockholders, were rot held to be agents within the meaning of this chapter, although they were withholding agents for the purpose of collection at the source. Resident debtors, individual or partnership were not held to be agents, but were required to withhold the tax at the source on interest paid to nonresident aliens. Banks were not agents for their non-resident depositors, where the relation was merely that of bank

see Chapter 14. For definition of “foreign partnership’ as used in this book see Chapter 11.

8 Reg. 33, Art. 8; T. D. 2313.
9 See Chapter 7 on Nominal Stockholders.

10 Letter from Treasury Department dated May 31, 1916; I. T. S. 1918, { 105.

11 T. D. 2137.

12 Letter from Treasury Department dated January 19, 1915; I. T. S. 1918, 1 99.

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