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RADIO OFFICERS, WATCHES, AUTO ALARM-RADIOTELEGRAPH EQUIPPED

142 SHIPS

SEC. 353.143 [47 U.S.C. 353] (a) Each cargo ship which in accordance with this part is equipped with a radiotelegraph station and which is not equipped with a radiotelegraph auto alarm, and each passenger ship required by this part to be equipped with a radiotelegraph station, shall, for safety purposes, carry at least two radio officers.

(b) A cargo ship which in accordance with this part is equipped with a radiotelegraph station, which is equipped with a radiotele graph auto alarm, shall

, for safety purposes, carry at least one radio officer who shall have had at least six months' previous service in the aggregate as a radio officer in a station on board a ship or ships of the United States.

(c) Each ship of the United States which in accordance with this part is equipped with a radiotelegraph station shall, while being navigated in the open sea outside of a harbor or port, keep a continuous watch by means of radio officers whenever the station is not being used for authorized traffic: Provided, That, in lieu there of, on a cargo ship equipped with a radiotelegraph auto alarm in proper operating condition, a watch of at least

eight hours per day, in the aggregate, shall be maintained by means of a radio officer.

(d) The Commission shall, when it finds it necessary for safety purposes, have authority to prescribe the particular hours of watch on a ship of the United States which in accordance with this part is equipped with a radiotelegraph station.

(e) On all ships of United States equipped with a radiotelegraph auto alarm, said apparatus shall be in operation at all times while the ship is being navigated in the open sea outside of a harbor or port when the radio officer is not on watch.

OPERATORS, WATCHES-RADIOTELEPHONE EQUIPPED SHIPS Sec. 354.144 [47 U.S.C. 353a] (a) Each cargo ship which in accordance with this part is equipped with a radiotelephone station

142 This heading was changed editorially by Public Law 89-121, approved August 13, 1965, 79 Stat. 511. The words “radiotelegraph equipped ships” had been added to the heading by Public Law 584, 83rd Cong., 2d Sess., approved August 13, 1954, 68 Stat. 704.

148 This section was amended to read as above by Public Law 89-121, approved August 13, 1965, 79 Stat. 511. Editorial clarifications were made throughout this section by replacing the terms "installation," "auto alarm," and "qualified operator" with the terms station,” “radiotele graph auto alarm," and "radio officer."

Subsection (c) was amended to include the phrase "while being navigated in the open sea outside of a harbor or port” in substitution for the phrase "while being navigated outside a harbor or port.”. Subsection (c) was also amended to provide that the continuous watch is to be maintained whenever the station is not being used for authorized traffic.

The words “radiotelegraph installation" had previously been substituted for “radio installation" throughout this section by Public Law 584, 83d Cong., 2d Sess., approved August 13, 1954, 68 Stat. 704.

14. This section was amended to read as above by Public Law 89-121, approved August 13, 1965, 79 Stat. 511. As originally added by Public Law 584, 83d Cong., 2d Sess., approved August 13, 1954, 68 Stat. 704, section 354 read as follows:

SEC. 354. (a) Each cargo ship fitted with a radiotelephone installation in accordance with section 356 shall, for safety purposes, carry at least one qualified operator who may be a member of the crew holding only a certificate for radio telephone.

(6) Each cargo ship of the United States fitted with a radiotelephone installation in accordance with section 356 shall, while being navigated outside a harbor or port, keep a listening watch in such manner and during such periods as determined by the Commission.

shall, for safety purposes, carry at least one operator who may be the master, an officer, or a member of the crew.

(b) Each cargo ship of the United States which in accordance with this part is equipped with a radiotelephone station shall, while being navigated in the open sea outside of a harbor or port, maintain continuous watch whenever the station is not being used for authorized traffic.

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS—RADIOTELEGRAPH EQUIPPED SHIPS SEC. 355.145 [47 U.S.C. 354] The radiotelegraph station and the radio direction finding apparatus required by section 351 of this part shall comply with the following requirements:

(a) The radiotelegraph station shall include a main installation and a reserve installation, electrically separate and electrically independent of each other: Provided, That, in installations on cargo ships of three hundred gross tons and upward but less than one thousand six hundred gross tons, and in installations on cargo ships of one thousand six hundred gross tons and upward installed prior to November 19, 1952, if the main transmitter complies with all the requirements for the reserve transmitter, the latter may be omitted. 146

146 This section was amended to read as above by Public Law 89-121, approved August 13, 1965, 79 Stat. 511. It formerly read as follows:

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS-RADIOTELEGRAPH EQUIPPED SHIPS SEC. 355. The radio installation and the radio direction-finding apparatus required by section 351 of this part shall comply with the following requirements:

(a) The radio installation shall comprise a main and an emergency or reserve radiotelegraph installation: Provided, That, in the case of an existing installation on a cargo ship and a new installation on a cargo ship if five hundred gross tons and upwards but less than one thousand six hundred gross tons, if the main installation complies with all requirements of an emergency or reserve installation, the emergency or reserve installation may be omitted, except that a separate emergency receiver must, in all cases, be provided.

(6) The ship's radio operating room and the emergency or reserve installation shall be placed in the upper part of the ship in a position of the greatest possible safety and as high as practicable above the deepest load water line, and the location of such room or rooms shall be approved by the Commandant of the Coast Guard.

(c) The main and emergency or reserve installations shall be capable of transmitting and receiving on the frequencies and types of waves designated by the Commission pursuant to law for the purpose of distress and safety of navigation.

(d) The main installation shall have a normal transmitting and receiving range of at least two hundred nautical miles, that is to say, it must be capable of transmitting and receiving clearly perceptible signals from ship to ship over a range of at least two hundred nautical miles by day under normal conditions and circumstances.

(e) Sufficient power shall be available at all times to operate the main radio installation efficiently under normal conditions over the range specified in subsection (d) of this section.

(A The emergency or reserve installation shall include a source of energy independent of the propelling power of the ship and of any other electrical systems and shall be capable of being put into operation rapidly and of working for at least six continuous hours. For the emergency or reserve installation, the normal range as defined in subsection (d) of this section shall be at least one hundred nautical miles.

(8) There shall be provided between the bridge of the ship and the radio room, and between the bridge and the location

of the direction finding apparatus, when the direction finding apparatus is not located on the bridge, an efficient means of communication independent of any other communications system of the ship.

(h) The direction finding apparatus shall be efficient and capable of receiving clearly perceptible radio signals and of taking bearings from which the true bearings and direction may be determined. It shall be capable of receiving signals on the frequencies prescribed for distress, direction finding, and radio beacons by the General Radio Regulations annexed to the International Telecommunications Convention in force and in new installations after the effective date of this part, such other frequencies as the Commission may for safety purposes designate.

146 The portion of section 355, formerly 354, which precedes subsection (b) thereof was previously amended by Public Law 584, 83d Cong., 2d Sess., approved August 13, 1954, 68 Stat. 704. This portion previously read as follows:

Continued

(b) The radiotelegraph station shall be so located that no harmful interference from extraneous mechanical or other noise will be caused to the proper reception of radio signals, and shall be placed in the upper part of the ship in a position of the greatest possible safety and as high as practicable above the deepest load waterline. The location of the radiotelegraph operating room or rooms shall be approved by the Commandant of the Coast Guard. The radiotelegraph installation shall be installed in such a position that it will be protected against the harmful effects of water or extremes of temperature, and shall be readily accessible both for immediate use in case of distress and for repair.

(c) The radiotelegraph operating room shall be of sufficient size and of adequate ventilation to enable the main and reserve radiotelegraph installations to be operated efficiently, and shall not be used for any purpose which will interfere with the operation of the radiotelegraph station. The sleeping accommodation of at least one radio officer shall be situated as near as practicable to the radio telegraph operating room. In ships the keels of which are laid on or after May 26, 1965, this sleeping accommodation shall not be within the radiotelegraph operating room.

(d) The main and reserve installations shall be capable of transmitting and receiving on the frequencies, and using the classes of emission, designated by the Commission pursuant to law for the purposes of distress and safety of navigation.

(e) The main and reserve installations shall, when connected to the main antenna, have a minimum normal range of two hundred nautical miles and one hundred nautical miles, respectively; that is, they must be capable of transmitting and receiving clearly perceptible signals from ship to ship by day and under normal conditions and circumstances over the specified ranges.

(f) Sufficient electrical energy shall be available at all times to operate the main installation over the normal range required by subsection (e) of this section as well as for the purpose of charging any batteries forming part of the radiotelegraph station.

(g) The reserve installation shall include a source of electrical energy independent of the propelling power of the ship and of any other electrical system and shall be capable of being put into operation rapidly and of working for at least six continuous hours. The reserve source of energy and its switchboard shall be as high as practicable in the ship and readily accessible to the radio officer.

(h) There shall be provided between the bridge of the ship and the radiotelegraph operating room, and between the bridge and the location of the radio direction finding apparatus, when such apparatus is not located on the bridge, an efficient two-way system for calling and voice communication which shall be independent of any other communication system in the ship.

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS SEC. 354. The radio installation and the radio direction-finding apparatus required by section 351 of this part shall comply with the following requirements:

(a) The radio installation shall comprise a main and an emergency or reserve installation: Provided, however, That on a cargo ship, if the main installation complies also with all the requirements of an emergency or reserve installation, the emergency or reserve installation may be omitted.

(i) The radio direction finding apparatus shall be efficient and capable of receiving signals with the minimum of receiver noise and of taking bearings from which the true bearing and direction may be determined. It shall be capable of receiving signals on the radio telegraph frequencies assigned by the radio regulations annexed to the International Telecommunication Convention in force for the purpose of distress, direction finding, and maritime radio beacons, and, in installations made after May 26, 1965, such other frequencies as the Commission may for safety purposes designate.

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS-RADIOTELEPHONE EQUIPPED SHIPS Sec. 356.147 [47 U.S.C. 354a] Cargo ships of three hundred gross tons and upward but less than one thousand six hundred gross tons may, in lieu of the radiotelegraph station prescribed by section 355, be equipped with a radiotelegraph station complying with the following requirements:

(a) The radiotelephone station shall be in the upper part of the ship, so located that it is sheltered to the greatest possible extent from noise which might impair the correct receiption of messages and signals, and, unless such station is situated on the bridge, there shall be efficient communication with the bridge.

(b) The radiotelephone installation shall be capable of transmitting and receiving on the frequencies, and using the classes of emission, designated by the Commission pursuant to law for purposes of distress and safety of navigation.

(c) The radiotelephone installation shall have a minimum normal range of one hundred and fifty nautical miles; that is, it shall be capable of transmitting and receiving clearly perceptible signals from ship to ship by day and under normal conditions and circumstances over this range.

(d) There shall be available at all times a main source of electrical energy sufficient to operate the installation over the normal range required by subsection (c) of this section. If batteries are pro vided they shall have sufficient capacity to operate the transmitter and receiver for at least six continuous hours under normal working conditions. In installations made on or after November 19, 1952, a reserve source of electrical energy shall be provided in the

147 This section was amended to read as above by Public Law 89-121, approved August 13, 1965, 79 Stat. 511. As originally added by Public Law 584, 83d Cong., 2d Sess., approved August 13, 1954, 68 Stat. 704, it read as follows:

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS-RADIOTELEPHONE EQUIPPED SHIPS SEC. 356. Cargo ships of less than sixteen hundred gross tons may, in lieu of the radiotelephone installation prescribed by section 355, carry a radiotelephone installation meeting the following requirements:

(a) The ship's radiotelephone installation shall be in the upper part of the ship and unless situated on the bridge, there shall be efficient communication with the bridge.

(6) The radiotelephone installation shall be capable of transmitting and receiving on the frequencies and with types of emissions designated by the Commission pursuant to law for the purpose of distress and safety of navigation.

(c) The transmitter shall be capable of transmitting clearly perceptible signals from ship to ship during daytime, under normal conditions and circumstances, over a minimum normal range of one hundred and fifty nautical miles.

(d) There shall be available at all times a source of energy sufficient to operate the installation over the normal range required by paragraph (c). If batteries are provided they shall have suffi. cient capacity to operate the transmitter and receiver for at least six hours continuously under normal working conditions. In new installations an emergency source of energy shall be provided in the upper part of the ship unless the main source of energy is so situated.

upper part of the ship unless the main source of energy is so situated.

SURVIVAL CRAFT SEC. 357.148 [47 U.S.C. 355] Every ship required to be provided with survival craft radio by treaty to which the United States is a party, by statute, or by regulation made in conformity with a treaty, convention, or statute, shall be fitted with efficient radio equipment appropriate to such requirement under such rules and regulations as the Commission may find necessary for safety of life. For purposes of this section, "radio equipment" shall include portable as well as nonportable apparatus.

APPROVAL OF INSTALLATIONS SEC. 358.149 (47 U.S.C. 356] (a) Insofar as is necessary to carry out the purposes and requirements of this part, the Commission shall have authority, for any ship subject to this part

(1) To approve the details as to the location and manner of installations of the equipment required by this part of equip ment necessitated by reason of the purposes and requirements of this part.

(2) To approve installations, apparatus, and spare parts necessary to comply with the purposes and requirements of this part.

(3) To prescribe such additional equipment as may be determined to be necessary to supplement that specified herein, for the proper functioning of the radio installation installed in accordance with this part or for the proper conduct of radio communication in time of emergency or distress.

TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION Sec. 359.150 [47 U.S.C. 357] (a) The master of every ship of the United States, equipped with radio transmitting apparatus, which meets with dangerous ice, a dangerous derelict, a tropical storm, or any other direct danger to navigation, or encounters subfreezing air temperatures associated with gale force winds causing severe ice accretion on superstructures, or winds of force 10 or above on the Beaufort scale for which no storm warning has been received, shall cause to be transmitted all pertinent information relating thereto to ships in the vicinity and to the appropriate authorities on land, in accordance with rules and regulations issued by the Commission. When they consider it necessary, such authorities of the United States shall promptly bring the information received by

148 Public Law 89-121, approved August 13, 1965, 79 Stat. 511, substituted "survival craft” in lieu of “lifeboat" in the version enacted by Public Law 584, 83d Cong., 2d Sess., approved August 13, 1954, 68 Stat. 704. The section previously read as follows:

LIFEBOATS

SEC. 355. Every motor lifeboat, required to be equipped with radio by treaty or convention to which the United States is a party, by statute, or by regulation made in conformity with a treaty, convention, or statute, shall be fitted with an efficient radio installation under such rules and regulations as the Commission may find necessary to promote the safety of life.

14. This section was enacted without a subsection (b). See note 131. 160 See note 131.

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