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(b) The charges made for the use of any broadcasting station by any person who is a legally qualified candidate for any public office in connection with his campaign for nomination for election, or election, to such office shall not exceed

(1) during the forty-five days preceding the date of a primary or primary runoff election and during the sixty days preceding the date of a general or special election in which such person is a candidate, the lowest unit charge of the station for the same class and amount of time for the same period; and

(2) at any other time, the charges made for comparable use of such station by other users thereof. (c) For purposes of this section

(1) the term "broadcasting station" includes a community antenna television system; and

(2) the term "licensee" and "station licensee" when used with respect to a community antenna television system mean

the operator of such system. (d) The Commission shall prescribe appropriate rules and regulations to carry out the provisions of this section. 112

section. No obligation is hereby imposed upon any licensee to allow the use of its station by any such candidate.

Before it was amended by the Communications Act Amendments, 1952, the original section 315 read as follows:

FACILITIES FOR CANDIDATES FOR PUBLIC OFFICE Sec. 315. If any licensee shall permit any person who is a legally qualified candidate for any public office to use a broadcasting station, he shall afford equal opportunities to all other such candidates for that office in the use of such broadcasting station, and the Commission shall make rules and regulations to carry this provision into effect: Provided, That such licensee shall have no power of censorship, over the material broadcast under the provisions of this section. No obligation is hereby imposed upon any licensee to allow the use of its station by any such candi. date.

Section 2 of Public Law 86–274 also provided:

(a) The Congress declares its intention to reexamine from time to time the amendment to section 315(d) of the Communications Act of 1934 made by the first section of this Act, to ascertain whether such amendment has proved to be effective and practicable.

(b) To assist the Congress in making its reexaminations of such amendment, the Federal Communications Commission shall include in each annual report it makes to Congress a statement setting forth (1) the information and data used by it in determining questions arising from or connected with such amendment, and (2) such recommendations as it deems necessary in the public interest.

112 Former subsections (c), (d) and (e) were repealed, former subsection (f) was redesignated (c) and amended to read as above, and former subsection (g) was redesignated (d) by Section 402 of Public Law 93—443, approved October 15, 1974, 88 Stat. 1291.

Subsection (b), and former subsections (c) through (f) were added by the Fair Election Campaign Act of 1971, Public Law 92-225, approved February 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 3. At the same time, the previous subsection (c) was designated as subsection (g). Former subsections (c), (d), (e) and (H read as follows:

(c) No station licensee may make any charge for the use of such station by or on behalf of any legally qualified candidate for Federal elective office (or for nomination to such office) unless such candidate (or a person specifically authorized by such candidate in writing to do so) certifies to such licensee in writing that the payment to such charge will not violate any limitation speci. fied in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 104(a) of the Campaign Communications Reform Act, whichever paragraph is applicable, (d) If a State by law and expressly

(1) has provided that a primary or other election for any office of such State or of a political subdivision thereof is subject to this subsection,

(2) has specified a limitation upon total expenditures for the use of broadcasting stations on behalf of the candidacy of each legally qualified candidate in such election,

(3) has provided in any such law an unequivocal expression of intent to be bound by the provisions of this subsection, and

(4) has stipulated that the amount of such limitation shall not exceed the amount which would be determined for such election under section 106(aX1XB) or 106(aX2XB) (whichever is applicable). of the Campaign Communications Reform Act had such election been an election for a Federal elective office or nomination thereto;

Continued

MODIFICATION BY COMMISSION OF CONSTRUCTION PERMITS OR LICENSES

Sec. 316. [47 U.S.C. 316] (aX1) Any station license or construction permit may be modified by the Commission either for a limited time or for the duration of the term thereof, if in the judgment of the Commission such action will promote the public interest, convenience, and necessity, or the provisions of this Act or of any treaty ratified by the United States will be more fully complied with. No such order of modification shall become final until the holder of the license or permit shall have been notified in writing of the proposed action and the grounds and reasons therefor, and shall be given reasonable opportunity, of at least thirty days, to protest such proposed order of modification; except that, where safety of life or property is involved, the Commission may by order provide, for a shorter period of notice.

(2) Any other licensee or permittee who believes its license or permit would be modified by the proposed action may also protest the proposed action before its effective date.

(3) A protest filed pursuant to this subsection shall be subject to the requirements of section 309 for petitions to deny.

(b) In any case where a hearing is conducted pursuant to the provisions of this section, both the burden of proceeding with the introduction of evidence and the burden of proof shall be upon the Commission; 118 except that, with respect to any issue that address

then no station licensee may make any charge for the use of such station by or on behalf of any legally qualified candidate in such election unless such candidate (or a person specifically au. thorized by such candidate in writing to do so) certifies to such licensee in writing that the payment of such charge will not violate such State limitation

(e) Whoever willfully and knowingly violates the provisions of subsection (c) or (d) of this section shall be punished by a fine not to exceed $5,000 or imprisonment for a period not to exceed five years, or both. The provisions of sections 501 through 503 of this Act shall not apply to violations of either such subsection (f/1) For the purposes of this section:

(A) The term broadcasting station" includes a community antenna television system.

(B) The terms "licensee" and "station licensee" when used with respect to a community antenna television system, means the operator of such system.

(C) The term Federal elective officemeans the office of President of the United States, or of Senator or Representative in, or Resident Commissioner or Delegate to, the Congress of the

United States. (2) For purposes of subsections (c) and (d), the term "legally qualified candidatemeans any person who (A) meets the qualifications prescribed by the applicable laws to bold the office for which he is a candidate and (B) is eligible under applicable State law to be voted for by the electorate directly or by means of delegates or electors.

Prior to Public Law 92-225, subsection (b) read as follows:

Section 315(6). The charges made for the use of any broadcasting station for any of the purposes set forth in this section shall not exceed the charges made for comparable use of such station for

118 This section was added by the Communications Act Amendments, 1952. The original section 316 of the Communications Act of 1934 was repealed and recodified as section 1304 of the Criminal Code, 18 U.S.C. 1304, by "An Act to revise, codify and enact into positive law title 18 of the United States Code, entitled 'Crimes and Criminal Procedure'," Public No. 772, 80th Cong., 2d Sess., approved June 25, 1948, effective September 1, 1948. The text of section 316 was as follows:

Sec. 316. No person shall broadcast by means of any radio station for which a license is rely permit the broadcasting of, any advertisement of or information concerning any lottery, gift enterprise, or similar scheme, offering

prizes dependent in whole or in part upon lot or chance, or any list of the prizes drawn or awarded by means of any such lottery, gift enterprise, or scheme, whether said list contains any part or all of such prizes. Any person violating any provision of this section shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both, for each and every day during which such offense occurs. $ 1304. Public No. 772, 80th Cong. 2d Sess., reads as follows:

Continued

other purposes.

es the question of whether the proposed action would modify the license or permit of a person described in subsection (aX2), such burdens shall be as determined by the Commission.

ANNOUNCEMENT WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN MATTER BROADCAST Sec. 317. [47 U.S.C. 317] (aX1) All matter broadcast by any radio station for which any money, service or other valuable consideration is directly or indirectly paid, or promised to or charged or accepted by, the station so broadcasting, from any person, shall, at the time the same is so broadcast, be announced as paid for or furnished, as the case may be, by such person: Provided, That "service or other valuable consideration” shall not include any service or property furnished without charge or at a nominal charge for use on, or in connection with, a broadcast unless it is so furnished in consideration for an identification in a broadcast of any person, product, service, trademark, or brand name beyond an identification which is reasonably related to the use of such service or property on the broadcast.

(2) Nothing in this section shall preclude the Commission from requiring that an appropriate announcement shall be made at the time of the broadcast in the case of any political program or any program involving the discussion of any controversial issue for which any films, records, transcriptions, talent, scripts, or other material or service of any kind have been furnished, without charge or at a nominal charge, directly or indirectly, as an inducement to the broadcast of such program.

(b) In any case where a report has been made to a radio station, as required by section 507 of this Act, of circumstances which would have required an announcement under this section had the consideration been received by such radio station, an appropriate announcement shall be made by such radio station.

(c) The licensee of each radio station shall exercise reasonable diligence to obtain from its employees, and from other persons with whom it deals directly in connection with any program or program matter for broadcast, information to enable such licensee to make the announcement required by this section.

(d) The Commission may waive the requirement of an announcement as provided in this section in any case or class of cases with respect to which it determines that the public interest, convenience, or necessity does not require the broadcasting of such announcement.

(e) The Commission shall prescribe appropriate rules and regulations to carry out the provisions of this section. 114

§ 1304. Broadcasting Lottery Information. Whoever broadcasts by means of any radio station for which a license is required by any law of the United States, or whoever operating any such station, knowingly permits the broadcasting of, any advertisement of or information concerning any lottery, gift enterprise or similar scheme, offering prizes dependent in whole or in part upon lot or chance, or any list of the prizes drawn or awarded by means of any such lottery, gift enterprise, or scheme, whether said list contains any part of all of such prizes shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. Each day's broadcasting shall constitute a separate offense.

114 Section 317 was amended to read as above by Public Law 86-752, approved September 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 889. It formerly read as follows:

Continued

OPERATION OF TRANSMITTING APPARATUS,

Sec. 318. [47 U.S.C. 318] The actual operation of all transmitting apparatus in any radio station for which a station license is required by this Act shall be carried on only by a person holding an operator's license issued hereunder, and no person shall operate any such apparatus in such station except under and in accordance with an operator's license issued to him by the Commission: Provided, however, That the Commission if it shall find that the public interest, convenience, or necessity will be served thereby nay waive or modify the foregoing provisions of this section for the operation of any station except (1) stations for which licensed operators are required by international agreement, (2) stations for which licensed operators are required for safety purposes, (3) stations engaged in broadcasting (other than those engaged primarily in the function of rebroadcasting the signals of broadcast stations) and (4) stations operated as common carriers on frequencies below thirty thousand kilocycles: Provided further, That the Commission shall have power to make special regulations governing the granting of licenses for the use of automatic radio devices and for the operation of such devices. 115

ANNOUNCEMENT THAT MATTER IS PAID FOR

Sec. 317. All matter broadcast by any radio station for which service, money, or any other valuable consideration is directly or indirectly paid, or promised to or charged or accepted by, the station so broadcasting, or from any person, shall

, at the time the same is so broadcast, be announced as paid for or furnished, as the case may be, by such person.

118 Subsection (3) was amended to read as above by Public Law 94-335, approved July 1, 1976, 90 Stat. 794.

It was formerly amended by Public Law 86-609, approved July 7, 1960, 74 Stat. 363, and read as follows:

(3) stations engaged in broadcasting (other than those engaged solely in the function of rebroadcasting the signals of television broadcast stations), and

The subsection was earlier amended by Public Law 75-26, approved March 29, 1937, 50 Stat. 56, and read as follows:

(3) stations engaged in broadcasting, and *
Before these amendments, section 318 originally read as follows:

Sec. 318. The actual operation of all transmitting apparatus in any radio station for which a station license is required by this Act shall be carried on only by a person holding an operator's license issued hereunder. No person shall operate any such apparatus in such station except under and in accordance with an operator's license issued to him by the Commission.

CONSTRUCTION PERMITS

SEC. 319.116 [47 U.S.C. 319] (a) No license shall be issued under the authority of this Act for the operation of any station 117 unless a permit for its construction has been granted by the Commission. The application for a construction permit shall set forth such facts as the Commission by regulation may prescribe as to the citizenship, character, and the financial, technical, and other ability of the applicant to construct and operate the station, the ownership and location of the proposed station and of the station or stations with which it is proposed to communicate, the frequencies desired to be used, the hours of the day or other periods of time during which it is proposed to operate the station, the purpose for which the station is to be used, the type of transmitting apparatus to be used, the power to be used, the date upon which the station is expected to be completed and in operation, and such other information as the Commission may require. Such application shall be signed by the applicant. 118

(b) Such permit for construction shall show specifically the earliest and latest dates between which the actual operation of such station is expected to begin, and shall provide that said permit will be automatically forfeited if the station is not ready for operation within the time specified or within such further time as the Com

116 Except as noted subsequently, this section was amended to read as above by the Communications Act Amendments, 1952, which amended subsections (a) and (b) and added subsection (c). Subsection (d) was added by Public No. 321, 83rd Congress, 2d Session, approved March 26, 1954, 68 Stat. 35. Prior to the Communications Act Amendments, 1952, the section read as follows:

CONSTRUCTION PERMITS Sec. 319. (a) No license shall be issued under the authority of this Act for the operation of any station the construction of which is begun or is continued after this Act takes effect, unless a permit for its construction has been granted by the Commission upon written application therefor. The Commission may grant such a permit if public convenience, interest, or necessity will be served by the construction of the station. This application shall set forth such facts as the Com. mission by regulation may prescribe as to the citizenship, character, and the financial, technical, and other ability of the applicant to construct and operate the station, the ownership and location of the proposed station and of the station or stations with which it is proposed to communi. cate, the frequencies desired to be used, the hours of the day or other periods of time during which it is proposed to operate the station, the purpose for which the station is to be used, the type of transmitting apparatus to be used, the power to be used, the date upon which the station is expected to be completed and in operation, and such other information as the Commission may require. Such application shall be signed by the applicant under oath or affirmation.

(6) Such permit for construction shall show specifically the earliest and latest dates between which the actual operation of such station is expected to begin, and shall provide that said permit will be automatically forfeited if the station is not ready for operation within the time specified or within such further time as the Commission might allow, unless prevented by causes not under the control of the grantee. The rights under any such permit shall not be assigned or otherwise transferred to any person without the approval of the Commission. A permit for construction shall not be required for Government stations, amateur stations, or stations upon mobile vessels, railroad rolling stock, or aircraft. Upon the completion of any station for the construction or continued construction of which a permit has been granted, and upon it being made to appear to the Commission that all the terms, conditions, and obligations set forth in the application and permit have been fully met, and that no cause or circumstance arising or first coming to the knowledge of the Commission since the granting of the permit would, in the judgment of the Commission, make the operation of such station against the public interest, the Commission shall issue a license to the lawful holder of said permit for the operation of said stations. Said license shall conform generally to the terms of said permit.

117 Section 319(a) was amended by Public Law 97-259, 96 Stat. 1087, 1095, Sept. 13, 1982, by deleting "the construction of which is begun or is continued after this Act takes effect" after “station" the first time it appears.

118 Subsection (a) was amended by Public Law 87-444, approved April 27, 1962, 76 stat. 64, by deleting from the last sentence, the words "under oath or affirmation."

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