Universal Service: Competition, Interconnection, and Monopoly in the Making of the American Telephone System
American Enterprise Institute, 1997 - 213 lappuses
Universal service is a focal point of telecommunications policy in the 1990s, not only in the United States, but in every other country that has begun to liberalize or deregulate its telecommunications industry. The new policy dialogue revolves around four questions. First, how much do the universal service obligations of incumbent telephone companies cost? Second, how can those costs be financed in a competitive environment? Third, what kind of technical and pricing arrangements should be made to interconnect incumbent telephone companies with the new, competing networks? Finally, should the service bundle designated as "universal service" be redefined to take into account new technologies, and if so, how?
In the United States, debate over those issues reached a milestone when the U.S. Congress passed the Telecommunications Act of 1996. The new law is the first comprehensive revision of the Communications Act of 1934 and culminates twenty years of legislative struggle over how to adapt federal law to the new realities of telecommunications. In effect, the new law codifies the perceived wisdom about interconnection, competition, and universal service in telecommunications. Because one of the chief purposes of Milton Mueller's analysis is to mount a historically grounded challenge to that orthodoxy, the new law provides the perfect foil for a critique that links the historical and contemporary policy debates over universal service.
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Telephone Development before
The Legal and Economic Rationales for Not Interconnecting
The Dynamics of Access Competition
The Anatomy of Subscriber
Vails Answer to Dual Service
The Power of Interconnection 19081913
The Kingsbury Commitment
The Subtle Politics and Economics of Unification
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access competition affordable American areas Association AT&T AT&T-BLA attempt authority began Bell System Bell's calls carriers Central charges cities commissions Commitment communications competing competitors concept connections consolidation costs Court created debate demand dual service duplicate early economic effect efficient eliminated established exclusive existing facilities federal forced growth historical Home important increase independent exchanges industry integrated interconnection interests issue Kingsbury Letter long-distance major managers means Michigan monopoly natural monopoly network externality offered operating organization percent period phones physical points political possible president problem rates reach reasonable regional regulation regulatory REPORT rural scale scope separate served Studies subscribers subsidies supply telecommunications telegraph telephone companies telephone service telephone system theory tion toll lines towns United universal service users utility Vail Vail's York
A Nation Transformed by Information: How Information Has Shaped the United ...
Alfred D. Chandler Jr.,James W. Cortada
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