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COMPUTERS AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON
COURTS, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY,
AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

ONE HUNDRED FIRST CONGRESS

FIRST AND SECOND SESSIONS

NOVEMBER 8, 1989, AND MARCH 7, 1990

Serial No. 119

Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

WASHINGTON : 1991

33-652 5

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office

U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

JACK BROOKS, Texas, Chairman
ROBERT W. KASTENMEIER, Wisconsin HAMILTON FISH, JR., New York
DON EDWARDS, California

CARLOS J. MOORHEAD, California
JOHN CONYERS, JR., Michigan

HENRY J. HYDE, Illinois ROMANO L. MAZZOLI, Kentucky

F. JAMES SENSENBRENNER, JR., WILLIAM J. HUGHES, New Jersey

Wisconsin MIKE SYNAR, Oklahoma

BILL McCOLLUM, Florida PATRICIA SCHROEDER, Colorado

GEORGE W. GEKAS, Pennsylvania DAN GLICKMAN, Kansas

MICHAEL DEWINE, Ohio BARNEY FRANK, Massachusetts

WILLIAM E. DANNEMEYER, California GEO. W. CROCKETT, JR., Michigan

HOWARD COBLE, North Carolina CHARLES E. SCHUMER, New York

D. FRENCH SLAUGHTER, JR., Virginia BRUCE A. MORRISON, Connecticut

LAMAR S. SMITH, Texas EDWARD F. FEIGHAN, Ohio

CHUCK DOUGLAS, New Hampshire LAWRENCE J. SMITH, Florida

CRAIG T. JAMES, Florida
HOWARD L. BERMAN, California

TOM CAMPBELL, California
RICK BOUCHER, Virginia
HARLEY O. STAGGERS, JR., West Virginia
JOHN BRYANT, Texas
BENJAMIN L. CARDIN, Maryland
MEL LEVINE, California
GEORGE E. SANGMEISTER, Illinois
CRAIG A. WASHINGTON, Texas

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WILLIAM M. JONES, General Counsel
ROBERT H. BRINK, Deputy General Counsel
ALAN F. COFFEY, JR., Minority Chief Counsel

SUBCOMMITTEE ON COURTS, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF

JUSTICE
ROBERT W. KASTENMEIER, Wisconsin, Chairman
GEO. W. CROCKETT, JR., Michigan

CARLOS J. MOORHEAD, California
HOWARD L. BERMAN, California

HENRY J. HYDE, Ilinois JOHN BRYANT, Texas

HOWARD COBLE, North Carolina RICK BOUCHER, Virginia

R. FRENCH SLAUGHTER JR., Virginia GEORGE E. SANGMEISTER, Illinois

HAMILTON FISH, JR., New York WILLIAM J. HUGHES, New Jersey

F. JAMES SENSENBRENNER, JR., MIKE SYNAR, Oklahoma

Wisconsin MEL LEVINE, California

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91-600239

CONTENTS

HEARINGS DATES

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OPENING STATEMENT

Kastenmeier, Hon. Robert W., a Representative in Congress from the State of

Wisconsin, and chairman, Subcommittee on Courts, Intellectual Property,

and the Administration of Justice ........

WITNESSES

Branscomb, Anne Wells, Esq., research associate, program on information

resources policy, Harvard University, and adjunct professor of international

law, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University..

Bricklin, Daniel S., president, Software Garden, Inc....

Curlin, James W., Manager, Communication and Information Technologies,

Office of Technology Assessment.

Fultz, Keith O., Director, Planning and Reporting, Resources Community and

Economic Development Division, General Accounting Office .....

Gilbert, Steven W., vice president, Educom, and director, Educom Software

Initiative, accompanied by Brian Kahin, Esq., affiliated with research pro-

gram of communications policy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Kapor, Mitchell D., chairman and chief executive officer, ON Technology, Inc.
Lemberg, Thomas M., Esq., vice president and general counsel, Lotus Develop-

ment Corp., on behalf of the Software Publishers Association
Oman, Ralph, Register of Copyrights, Library of Congress........
Raskind, Leo J., professor of law, University of Minnesota
Reiling, Ronald T., chairman, Proprietary Rights Committee, Computer and

Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (CBEMA], and manager,
intellectual property programs, Digital Equipment Corp., accompanied by

Ingrid Voorhees, director, domestic policy, CBEMA.

Samuels, Jeffrey M., Acting Commissioner, Patent and Trademark Office,

U.S. Department of Commerce......

Samuelson, Pamela, visiting professor of law, School of Law, Emory Univerity

Wessell, Milton R., adjunct professor of law, Georgetown University Law

Center .....

LETTERS, STATEMENTS, ETC., SUBMITTED FOR THE HEARINGS

Branscomb, Anne Wells, Esq., research associate, program on information

resources policy, Harvard University, and adjunct professor of international
law, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University: Prepared

statement with attachment......
Bricklin, Daniel S., president, Software Garden, Inc.: Prepared statement.........
Curlin, James W., Manager, Communication and Information Technologies,

Office of Technology Assessment: Prepared statement with attachment.....

Fultz, Keith O., Director, Planning and Reporting, Resources Community and

Economic Development Division, General Accounting Office: Prepared

statement .......

Gilbert, Steven W., vice president, Educom, director, Educom Software Initia-
tive: Prepared statement with attachments.

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Kapor, Mitchell D., chairman and chief executive officer, ON Technology,

Inc.: Prepared statement .......
Lemberg, Thomas M., Esq., vice president and general counsel, Lotus Develop-

ment Corp., on behalf of the Software Publishers Association: Prepared

statement...
Moorhead, Hon. Carlos J., a Representative in Congress from the State of

California: Letter from Chairman Kastenmeier and Mr. Moorhead to Hon.
Carla Hills, U.S. Trade Representative (February 21, 1990)....
Office of Technology Assessment, Communmications and

Information Technologies Program: Staff Paper on Intellectual Property Protection for Com

puter Software (November 2, 1989), with attachment (November 6, 1989)..... Oman, Ralph, Register of Copyrights, Library of Congress: Prepared

statement.... Raskind, Leo, J., professor of law, University of Minnesota: Prepared

statement... Reiling, Ronald T., chairman, Proprietary Rights Committee, Computer and

Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, and manager, intellectual
property programs, Digital Equipment Corp.: Prepared statement with at-
tachments
Samuels, Jeffrey M., Acting Commissioner, Patent and Trademark Office,

Department of Commerce: Prepared statement...
Samuelson, Pamela, visiting professor of law, School of Law, Emory Univer-

ity: Prepared statement.....
Wessell, Milton R., adjunct professor of law, Georgetown University Law
Center: Prepared statement with attachment....

APPENDIXES
Appendix 1.-Additional statements.....
Professor Gideon Frieder, dean, School of Computer and Information

Science, Syracuse University
Software Publishers Association
Richard Stallman, president, League for Programming Freedom,

Cambridge, MA.
Amdahl Corp., Sunnyvale, CA.......

NCR Corp., Dayton, OH...
Appendix 2.--Additional materials submitted by witnesses
Anne Wells Branscomb:

"Nurturing Creativity in a Competitive Global Economy: Intellectual

Property and New Technology" (draft), Program on Information
Resources Policy, Center for Information Policy Research, Harvard
University (1988).
"Computer Software: Protecting the Crown Jewels of the Information

Economy” (1989)...
Milton R. Wessel: "Alternative Dispute Resolution for the Socioscientific

Dispute," 1 J. L. & Tech, 1-29 (1986).
Pamela Samuelson: “Protecting User Interfacers Through Copyright: The

Debate,” Association for Computing Machinery (1989).
Leo J. Raskind: "The Continuing Process of Refining and Adapting

Copyright Principles," 31 German Yearbook of International Law 478

509 (1989).... Ralph Oman: Letter from Richard E. Glasgow, Assistant General

Counsel, Copyright Office, to Hon. Robert W. Kastenmeier (May 1,

1987), with attachments. Jeffrey M. Samuels:

Letter from Hon. Robert W. Kastenmeier to Hon. Donald Quigg,

Assistant Secretary of Commerce and Commissioner of Patents and

Trademarks (October 18, 1989)...
Letter from Hon. Jeffrey M. Samuels, Acting Commissioner of

Patents and Trademarks, to Hon. Robert W. Kastenmeier (Novem

ber 1, 1989), with attachments Keith O. Fultz:

Letter from Hon. Robert W. Kastenmeier to Hon. Charles A.

Bowsher, Comptroller General of the United States (July 19, 1989)..
General Accounting Office, Report to the Chairman,

Subcommittee
on Courts, Intellectual Property, and the Administration of Justice,
“Technology Transfer-- Copyright Law Constrains Commercializa-
tion of Some Federal Software” (1990) .....

444 457 471 482

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Letter from Hon. Jack Brooks, chairman, Committee on the Judici

ary, Hon. Robert W. Kastenmeier, chairman, Subcommittee on
Courts, Intellectual Property, and the Administration of Justice,
Hon. Hamilton Fish, Jr., ranking minority member, Committee on
the Judiciary, and Hon. Carlos J. Moorhead, ranking minority
member, Subcommittee on Courts, Intellectual Property, and the
Administration of Justice, to Dr. John H. Gibbons, Director, Office

of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress (March 26, 1990)......
Letter from John H. Gibbons to Hon. Robert W. Kastenmeier (May

16, 1990)........
Appendix 3.-Further printed materials.....

World Intellectual Property Organization, "Model Provisions on the

Protection of Computer Software" (1978).
Kay, Alan, "Computer Software,” 251 Scientific American 53-59 (Sept.

1984)
Kahin, Brian, “The Software Patent Crisis,” Technology Review 53-58

(April 1990) Stern, Richard H., Keynote Address: "How To Protect New Technology

and Creations,” International Symposium on Legal Protection of Com

puter Software (October 1987)...... Stern, Richard H., "Appropriate and Inappropriate Legal Protection of

User Interfaces and Screen Displays, Part 1,” IEEE Micro 84-88 (June

1989).
Stern, Richard H., “Appropriate and Inappropriate Legal Protection of

User Interfaces and Screen Displays, Part 2, Technical Aspects of
Screen Design Raising Legal Policy Issues,” IEEE Micro 7-10, 92-94

(August 1989).
Stern, Richard H., "Appropriate and Inappropriate Legal Protection of

User Interfaces and Screen Displays, Part 3, Copyright Law, the
Courts, and the Copyright Office,” IEEE Micro 8, 9, 75-79 (October

1989)
Stern, Richard H., “Appropriate and Inappropriate Legal Protection of

User Interfaces and Screen Displays, Part 4, Screen Display Protection

and Policy Concerns,” IEEE Micro 84-89 (December 1989) .....
Stern, Richard H., “Appropriate and Inappropriate Legal Protection of

User Interfaces and Screen Displays, Part 5, How Different Forms of
Copyright Protection Interact With Policy,” IEEE Micro 79-84 (Febru-
ary 1990)
Keplinger, "Computer Software-Its Nature and Its Protection," 30

Emory L.J. 483-512 (1981)..
Hoffman, Gary, Jon Grossman, Patrick Keane, and Jodi Westby, "Protec-

tion for Computer Software: An International Overview: Part 1,” 11
European Intellectual Property Rev. 337-44 (1988).
Hoffman, Gary, Jon Grossman, Patrick Keane, and Jodi Westby, "Protec-

tion for Computer Software: An International Overview: Part 2," 1

European Intellectual Property Rev. 7-13 (1989)...
Kolata, Gina, “Mathematicians Are Troubled by Claims on Their Rec-

ipes," N.Y. Times, Mar. 12, 1989, at E26, col. 1.
"The Hacker's Return,” The Economist, 81 (July 15, 1989).
Weigner, Kathleen K., and John Heins, "Can Las Vegas Sue Atlantic

City?” Forbes, 130-33, 136-37 (March 6, 1989)...
Andrews, Edmund L., “Equations Patented; Some See a Danger,” N.Y.

Times, Feb. 15, 1989.
Brown, "Comment: The Incompatibility of Copyright and Computer

Software: An Economic Evaluation and a Proposal for a Marketplace

Solution,” 66 N.C. L. Rev. 977-1021 (1988)
Newell, “Response: The Models are Broken, the Models are Broken!” 47

U. Pitt, L. Rev. 1023-35 (1986).....
Kitagawa, Zentaro, "Legal Protection of Computer Programs in Japan-

One Aspect of Technology Law," WIPO 435E, Intellectual Property in
Asia and the Pacific 73–85 (paper presented at forum, Aug 30-Sept. 1,

1989).
Appendix 4.-Further letters and correspondence..

Beulick, John S., Clifton Park, NY: Letter to Hon. Robert W.

Kastenmeier (July 1, 1989)
Urbanik, Thomas, Madison, WI: Letter to Hon. Robert W. Kastenmeier

(September 27, 1989), with attachments.....

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