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(4) EXCESS PROFITS TAX NOT AFFECTED.-For purposes of subchapter D of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, excess profits net income shall be computed as if this section had not been enacted and as if section 122 of such Code continued to apply to taxable years to which this subtitle applies.

(h) DISALLOWANCE OF NET OPERATING Loss OF ELECTING SMALL BUSINESS CORPORATIONS.—In determining the amount of the net operating loss deduction under subsection (a) of any corporation, there shall be disregarded the net operating loss of such corporation for any taxable year for which such corporation is an electing small business corporation under subchapter S.

(i) CARRYBACK OF NET OPERATING Loss FOR TAXABLE YEARS BEGINNING IN 1957 AND ENDING IN 1958.-In the case of a taxable year beginning in 1957 and ending in 1958, the amount of any net operating loss for such year which shall be carried to the third preceding taxable year is the amount which bears the same ratio to such net operating loss as the number of days in the loss year after December 31, 1957, bears to the total number of days in such year. In determining the amount carried to any other taxable year, the reduction for the third taxable year preceding the loss year shall not exceed the portion of the net operating loss which is carried to the third preceding taxable year. () CROSS REFERENCES.

(1) For treatment of net operating loss carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions, see section 381.

(2) For special limitation on net operating loss carryovers in case of

a corporate change of ownership, see section 382. SEC. 173. CIRCULATION EXPENDITURES.

Notwithstanding section 263, all expenditures (other than expenditures for the purchase of land or depreciable property or for the acquisition of circulation through the purchase of any part of the business of another publisher of a newspaper, magazine, or other periodical) to establish, maintain, or increase the circulation of a newspaper, magazine, or other periodical shall be allowed as a deduction; except that the deduction shall not be allowed with respect to the portion of such expenditures as, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary or his delegate, is chargeable to capital account if the taxpayer elects, in accordance with such regulations, to treat such portion as so chargeable. Such election, if made, must be for the total amount of such portion of the expenditures which is so chargeable to capital account, and shall be binding for all subsequent taxable years unless, upon application by the taxpayer, the Secretary or his delegate permits a revocation of such election subject to such conditions as he deems necessary. SEC. 174. RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTAL EXPENDITURES. (a) TREATMENT AS EXPENSES.

(1) IN GENERAL.-A taxpayer may treat research or experimental expenditures which are paid or incurred by him during the taxable year in connection with his trade or business as expenses which are not chargeable to capital account. The expenditures so treated shall be allowed as a deduction.

(2) WHEN METHOD MAY BE ADOPTED.

(A) WITHOUT CONSENT.–A taxpayer may, without the consent of the Secretary or his delegate, adopt the method provided in this subsection for his first taxable year

(i) which begins after December 31, 1953, and ends after the date on which this title is enacted, and

(ii) for which expenditures described in paragraph (1) are paid or incurred.

(B) WITH CONSENT.-A taxpayer may, with the consent of the Secretary or his delegate, adopt at any time the method provided in this subsection.

(3) SCOPE.—The method adopted under this subsection shall apply to all expenditures described in paragraph (1). The method adopted shall be adhered to in computing taxable income for the taxable year and for all subsequent taxable years unless, with the approval of the Secretary or his delegate, a change to a different method is authorized with respect to part or all of such expenditures.

(b) AMORTIZATION OF CERTAIN RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTAL EXPENDITURES. —

(1) IN GENERAL.-At the election of the taxpayer, made in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary or his delegate, research or experimental expenditures which are

(A) paid or incurred by the taxpayer in connection with his trade or business,

(B) not treated as expenses under subsection (a), and

(C) chargeable to capital account but not chargeable to property of a character which is subject to the allowance under section 167 (relating to allowance for depreciation, etc.) or

section 611 (relating to allowance for depletion), may be treated as deferred expenses. In computing taxable income, such deferred expenses shall be allowed as a deduction ratably over such period of not less than 60 months as may be selected by the taxpayer (beginning with the month in which the taxpayer first realizes benefits from such expenditures). Such deferred expenses are expenditures properly chargeable to capital account for purposes of section 1016 (a) (1) (relating to adjustments to basis of property).

(2) TIME FOR AND SCOPE OF ELECTION.—The election provided by paragraph (1) may be made for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1953, but only if made not later than the time prescribed by law for filing the return for such taxable year (including extensions thereof). The method so elected, and the period selected by the taxpayer, shall be adhered to in computing taxable income for the taxable year for which the election is made and for all subsequent taxable years unless, with the approval of the Secretary or his delegate, a change to a different method (or to a different period) is authorized with respect to part or all of such expenditures. The election shall not apply to any expenditure paid or incurred during any taxable year before the taxable year for which the taxpayer makes the election.

(c) LAND AND OTHER PROPERTY.-This section shall not apply to any expenditure for the acquisition or improvement of land, or for the acquisition or improvement of property to be used in connection

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with the research or experimentation and of a character which is subject to the allowance under section 167 (relating to allowance for depreciation, etc.) or section 611 (relating to allowance for depletion); but for purposes of this section allowances under section 167, and allowances under section 611, shall be considered as expenditures.

(d) EXPLORATION EXPENDITURES.- This section shall not apply to any expenditure paid or incurred for the purpose of ascertaining the existence, location, extent, or quality of any deposit of ore or other mineral (including oil and gas). (e) Cross REFERENCE.

For adjustments to basis of property for amounts allowed as deductions as deferred expenses under subsection (b), see section 1016 (a)

(14). SEC. 175. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION EXPENDITURES,

(a) IN GENERAL.--A taxpayer engaged in the business of farming may treat expenditures which are paid or incurred by him during the taxable year for the purpose of soil or water conservation in respect of land used in farming, or for the prevention of erosion of land used in farming, as expenses which are not chargeable to capital account. The expenditures so treated shall be allowed as a deduction.

(b) LIMITATION.--The amount deductible under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed 25 percent of the gross income derived from farming during the taxable year. If for any taxable year the total of the expenditures treated as expenses which are not chargeable to capital account exceeds 25 percent of the gross income derived from farming during the taxable year, such excess shall be deductible for succeeding taxable years in order of time; but the amount deductible under this section for any one such succeeding taxable year (including the expenditures actually paid or incurred during the taxable year) shall not exceed 25 percent of the gross income derived from farming during the taxable year. (c) DEFINITIONS.-For purposes of subsection (a)-

(1) The term "expenditures which are paid or incurred by him during the taxable year for the purpose of soil or water conservation in respect of land used in farming, or for the prevention of erosion of land used in farming” means expenditures paid or incurred for the treatment or moving of earth, including (but not limited to) leveling, grading and terracing, contour furrowing, the construction, control, and protection of diversion channels, drainage ditches, earthen dams, watercourses, outlets, and ponds, the eradication of brush, and the planting of windbreaks. Such term does not include

(A) the purchase, construction, installation, or improvement of structures, appliances, or facilities which are of a character which is subject to the allowance for depreciation provided in section 167, or

(B) any amount paid or incurred which is allowable as a deduction without regard to this section. Notwithstanding the preceding sentences, such term also includes any amount, not otherwise allowable as a deduction, paid or incurred to satisfy any part of an assessment levied by a soil or water conservation or drainage district to defray expenditures made by such district which, if paid or incurred by the taxpayer, would with

out regard to this sentence constitute expenditures deductible under this section.

(2) The term "land used in farming" means land used (before or simultaneously with the expenditures described in paragraph (1)) by the taxpayer or his tenant for the production of crops, fruits, or other agricultural products or for the sustenance of livestock. (d) WHEN METHOD MAY BE ADOPTED.

(1) WITHOUT CONSENT.–A taxpayer may, without the consent of the Secretary or his delegate, adopt the method provided in this section for his first taxable year

(A) which begins after December 31, 1953, and ends after the date on which this title is enacted, and

(B) for which expenditures described in subsection (a) are paid or incurred.

(2) WITH CONSENT.--A taxpayer may, with the consent of the Secretary or his delegate, adopt at any time the method provided in this section.

(e) SCOPE.--The method adopted under this section shall all expenditures described in subsection (a). The method adopted shall be adhered to in computing taxable income for the taxable year and for all subsequent taxable years unless, with the approval of the Secretary or his delegate, a change to a different method is authorized with respect to part or all of such expenditures. SEC. 176. PAYMENTS WITH RESPECT TO EMPLOYEES OF CERTAIN

FOREIGN CORPORATIONS. In the case of a domestic corporation, there shall be allowed as a deduction amounts (to the extent not compensated for) paid or incurred pursuant to an agreement entered into under section 3121 (1) with respect to services performed by United States citizens employed by foreign subsidiary corporations. Any reimbursement of any amount previously allowed as a deduction under this section shall be included in gross income for the taxable year in which received. SEC. 177. TRADEMARK AND TRADE NAME EXPENDITURES.

(a) ELECTION TO AMORTIZE.-Any trademark or trade name expenditure paid or incurred during a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1955, may, at the election of the taxpayer (made in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary or his delegate), be treated as a deferred expense. In computing taxable income, all expenditures paid or incurred during the taxable year which are so treated shall be allowed as a deduction ratably over such period of not less than 60 months (beginning with the first month in such taxuble year) as may be selected by the taxpayer in making such election. The expenditures so treated are expenditures properly chargeable to capital account for purposes of section 1016 (a) (1) (relating to adjustments to basis of property).

(b) TRADEMARK AND TRADE NAME EXPENDITURES DEFINED.For purposes of subsection (a), the term “trademark or trade name expenditure" means any expenditure which-

(1) is directly connected with the acquisition, protection, expansion, registration (Federal, State, or foreign), or defense of a trademark or trade name;

(2) is chargeable to capital account; and

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(3) is not part of the consideration paid for a trademark, trade name, or business,

(c) TIME FOR AND SCOPE OF ELECTION.—The election provided by subsection (a) shall be made within the time prescribed by law (including extensions thereof) for filing the return for the taxable year during which the expenditure is paid or incurred. The period selected by the taxpayer under subsection (a) with respect to the expenditures paid or incurred during the taxable year which are treated as deferred expenses shall be adhered to in computing his taxable income for the taxable year for which the election is made and all subsequent years. (d) CROSS REFERENCE.—

For adjustments to basis of property for amounts allowed as deduc. tions for expenditures treated as deferred expenses under this section,

see section 1016 (a)(16). SEC. 178. DEPRECIATION OR AMORTIZATION OF IMPROVEMENTS

MADE BY LESSEE ON LESSOR'S PROPERTY, (a) GENERAL RULE. -Except as provided in subsection (b), in determining the amount allowable to a lessee as a deduction for any taxable year for exhaustion, wear and tear, obsolescence, or amortization

(1) in respect of any building erected (or other improvement made) on the leased property, if the portion of the term of the lease (excluding any period for which the lease may subsequently be renewed, extended, or continued pursuant to an option exercisable by the lessee) remaining upon the completion of such building or other improvement is less than 60 percent of the useful life of such building or other improvement, or

(2) in respect of any cost of acquiring the lease, if less than 75 percent of such cost is attributable to the portion of the term of the lease (excluding any period for which the lease may subsequently be renewed, extended, or continued pursuant to an option exercis

able by the lessee) remaining on the date of its acquisition, the term of the lease shall be treated as including any period for which the lease may be renewed, extended, or continued pursuant to an option exercisable by the lessee, unless the lessee establishes that (as of the close of the taxable year) it is more probable that the lease will not be renewed, extended, or continued for such period than that the lease will be so renewed, extended, or continued. (b) RELATED LESSEE AND LESSOR.

(1) GENERAL RULE.-If a lessee and lessor are related persons (as determined under paragraph (2)) at any time during the taxable year then, in determining the amount allowable to the lessee as a deduction for such taxable year for exhaustion, wear and tear, obsolescence, or amortization in respect of any building erected (or other improvement made) on the leased property, the lease shall be treated as including a period of not less duration than the remaining useful life of such improvement.

(2) RELATED PERSONS DEFINED.-For purposes of paragraph (1), á lessor and lessee shall be considered to be related persons if(A) the lessor and the lessee are members of an affiliated

group (as defined in section 1504), or

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