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months that the bond or other evidence of indebtedness was held by the taxpayer bears to the number of complete months

from the date of original issue to the date of maturity, shall be considered as gain from the sale or exchange of property which is not a capital asset. Gain in excess of such amount shall be considered gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset held more than 6 months. (B) EXCEPTIONS.- This paragraph shall not apply to

(i) obligations the interest on which is not includible in gross income under section 103 (relating to certain governmental obligations), or

(ii) any holder who has purchased the bond or other evidence of indebtedness at a premium.

(C) DOUBLE INCLUSION IN INCOME NOT REQUIRED.-- This section shall not require the inclusion of any amount previously

includible in gross income. (b) DEFINITIONS.

(1) ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT.-For purposes of subsection (a), the term “original issue discount” means the difference between the issue price and the stated redemption price at maturity. If the original issue discount is less than one-fourth of 1 percent of the redemption price at maturity multiplied by the number of complete years to maturity, then the issue discount shall be considered to be zero. For purposes of this paragraph, the term "stated redemption price at maturity" means the amount fixed by the last modification of the purchase agreement and includes dividends payable at that time.

(2) ISSUE PRICE.-In the case of issues of bonds or other evidences of indebtedness registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, the term "issue price” means the initial offering price to the public (excluding bond houses and brokers) at which price a substantial amount of such bonds or other evidences of indebtedness were sold. In the case of privately-placed issues of bonds or other evidence of indebtedness, the issue price of each such bond or other evidence of indebtedness is the price paid by the first buyer of such bond. For purposes of this paragraph, the terms “initial offering price” and “price paid by the first buyer” include the aggregate payments made by the purchaser under the purchase agreement, including modifications thereof.

(3) ISSUE DATE.-- In the case of issues of bonds or other evidences of indebtedness registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, the term date of original issue" means the date on which the issue was first sold to the public at the issue price. In the case of privately placed issues of bonds or other evidences of indebtedness, the term "date of original issue" means the date on which each such bond or other evidence of indebtedness was sold by the issuer.

(c) BOND With UNMATURED COUPONS DETACHED.-If a bond or other evidence of indebtedness issued at any time with interest coupons

(1) is purchased after August 16, 1954, and before January 1, 1958, and the purchaser does not receive all the coupons which first become payable more than 12 months after the date of the purchase, or

(2) is purchased after December 31, 1957, and the purchaser does not receive all the coupons which first become payable after the

date of the purchase, then the gain on the sale or other disposition of such evidence of indebtedness by such purchaser (or by a person whose basis is determined by reference to the basis in the hands of such purchaser) shall be considered as gain from the sale or exchange of property which is not a capital asset to the extent that the fair market value (determined as of the time of the purchase) of the evidence of indebtedness with coupons attached exceeds the purchase price. If this subsection and subsection (a) (2) (A) apply with respect to gain realized on the sale or exchange of any evidence of indebtedness, then subsection (a) (2) (A) shall apply with respect to that part of the gain to which this subsection does not apply. (d) CROSS REFERENCE.

For special treatment of face-amount certificates on retirement, see

section 72. SEC. 1233. GAINS AND LOSSES FROM SHORT SALES.

(a) CAPITAL Assets. For purposes of this subtitle, gain or loss from the short sale of property shall be considered as gain or loss from the sale or exchange of a capital asset to the extent that the property, including a commodity future, used to close the short sale constitutes a capital asset in the hands of the taxpayer.

(b) SHORT-TERM GAINS AND HOLDING PERIODS.-If gain or loss from a short sale is considered as gain or loss from the sale or exchange of a capital asset under subsection (a) and if on the date of such short sale substantially identical property has been held by the taxpayer for not more than 6 months (determined without regard to the effect, under paragraph (2) of this subsection, of such short sale on the holding period), or if substantially identical property is acquired by the taxpayer after such short sale and on or before the date of the closing thereof,

(1) any gain on the closing of such short sale shall be considered as a gain on the sale or exchange of a capital asset held for not more than 6 months (notwithstanding the period of time any property used to close such short sale has been held); and

(2) the holding period of such substantially identical property shall be considered to begin (notwithstanding section 1223, relating to the holding period of property) on the date of the closing of the short sale, or on the date of a sale, gift, or other disposition of such property, whichever date occurs first. This paragraph shall apply to such substantially identical property in the order of the dates of the acquisition of such property, but only to so much of such prop

erty as does not exceed the quantity sold short. For purposes of this subsection, the acquisition of an option to sell property at a fixed price shall be considered as a short sale, and the exercise or failure to exercise such option shall be considered as a closing of such short sale.

(c) CERTAIN OPTIONS TO SELL.-Subsection (b) shall not include an option to sell property at a fixed price acquired on the same day on which the property identified as intended to be used in exercising such option is acquired and which, if exercised, is exercised through the

sale of the property so identified. If the option is not exercised, the cost of the option shall be added to the basis of the property with which the option is identified. This subsection shall apply only to options acquired after the date of enactment of this title.

(d) LONG-TERM LOSSES.-If on the date of such short sale substantially identical property has been beld by the taxpayer for more than 6 months, any loss on the closing of such short sale shall be considered as a loss on the sale or exchange of a capital asset held for more than 6 months (notwithstanding the period of time any property used to close such short sale has been held, and notwithstanding section 1234). (e) RULES FOR APPLICATION OF SECTION,

(1) Subsection (b) (1) or (d) shall not apply to the gain or loss, respectively, on any quantity of property used to close such short sale which is in excess of the quantity of the substantially identical property referred to in the applicable subsection. (2) For purposes of subsections (b) and (d)—

(A) the term “property” includes only stocks and securities (including stocks and securities dealt with on a "when issued” basis), and commodity futures, which are capital assets in the hands of the taxpayer;

(B) in the case of futures transactions in any commodity on or subject to the rules of a board of trade or commodity exchange, a commodity future requiring delivery in 1 calendar month shall not be considered as property substantially identical to another commodity future requiring delivery in a different calendar month; and

(C) in the case of a short sale of property by an individual, the term "taxpayer", in the application of this subsection and subsections (b) and (d), shall be read as “taxpayer or his spouse”; but an individual who is legally separated from the taxpayer under a decree of divorce or of separate maintenance shall not be considered as the spouse of the taxpayer.

(3) Where the taxpayer enters into 2 commodity futures transactions on the same day, one requiring delivery by him in one market and the other requiring delivery to him of the same (or substantially identical) commodity in the same calendar month in a different market, and the taxpayer subsequently closes both such transactions on the same day, subsections (b) and (d) shall have no application to so much of the commodity involved in either such transaction as does not exceed in quantity the commodity involved in the other.

(4) (A) In the case of a taxpayer who is a dealer in securities (within the meaning of section 1236)

(i) if, on the date of a short sale of stock, substantially identical property which is a capital asset in the hands of the taxpayer has been held for not more than 6 months, and

(ii) if such short sale is closed more than 20 days after the date on which it was made, subsection (b) (2) shall apply in respect of the holding period of such substantially identical property.

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(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A)

(i) the last sentence of subsection (b) applies; and

(ii) the term "stock” means any share or certificate of stock in a corporation, any bond or other evidence of indebtedness which is convertible into any such share or certificate, or any evidence of an interest in, or right to subscribe to or purchase, any of the foregoing. (1) ARBITRAGE OPERATIONS IN SECURITIES.-In the case of a short sale which had been entered in to as an arbitrage operation, to which sale the rule of subsection (b) (2) would apply except as otherwise provided in this subsection

(1) subsection (b) (2) shall apply first to substantially identical assets acquired for arbitrage operations held at the close of business on the day such sale is made, and only to the extent that the quantity sold short exceeds the substantially identical assets acquired for arbitrage operations held at the close of business on the day such sale is made, shall the holding period of any other such identical assets held by the taxpayer be affected;

(2) in the event that assets acquired for arbitrage operations are disposed of in such manner as to create a net short position in assets acquired for arbitrage operations, such net short position shall be deemed to constitute a short sale made on that day;

(3) for the purpose of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection the taxpayer will be deemed as of the close of any business day to hold property which he is or will be entitled to receive or acquire by virtue of any other asset acquired for arbitrage operations or by virtue of any contract he has entered into in an arbitrage operation; and

(4) for the purpose of this subsection arbitrage operations are transactions involving the purchase and sale of assets for the purpose of profiting from a current difference between the price of the asset purchased and the price of the asset sold, and in which the asset purchased, if not identical to the asset sold, is such that by virtue thereof the taxpayer is, or will be, entitled to acquire assets identical to the assets sold. Such operations must be clearly identified by the taxpayer in his records as arbitrage operations on the day of the transaction or as soon thereafter as may be practicable. Assets acquired for arbitrage operations will include stocks and securities and the right to acquire stocks and securities.

(g) HEDGING TRANSACTIONS.—This section shall not apply in the case of a hedging transaction in commodity futures, SEC. 1234. OPTIONS TO BUY OR SELL.

(a) TREATMENT OF GAIN or Loss.--Gain or loss attributable to the sale or exchange of, or loss attributable to failure to exercise, a privilege or option to buy or sell property shall be considered gain or loss from the sale or exchange of property which has the same character as the property to which the option or privilege relates has in the hands of the taxpayer (or would have in the hands of the taxpayer if acquired by him).

(b) SPECIAL RULE FOR Loss ATTRIBUTABLE TO FAILURE TO EXERCISE OPTION.- For purposes of subsection (a), if loss is attributable to failure to exercise a privilege or option, the privilege or option shall be deemed to have been sold or exchanged on the day it expired.

(c) NON-APPLICATION OF SECTION. —This section shall not apply to

(1) a privilege or option which constitutes property described in paragraph (1) of section 1221;

(2) in the case of gain attributable to the sale or exchange of a privilege or option, any income derived in connection with such privilege or option which, without regard to this section, is treated as other than gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset;

(3) a loss attributable to failure to exercise an option described in section 1233 (c); or

(4) gain attributable to the sale or exchange of a privilege or option acquired by the taxpayer before March 1, 1954, if in the

hands of the taxpayer such privilege or option is a capital asset. SEC. 1235. SALE OR EXCHANGE OF PATENTS.

(a) ĠENERAL.-A transfer (other than by gift, inheritance, or devise) of property consisting of all substantial rights to a patent, or an undivided interest therein which includes a part of all such rights, by any holder shall be considered the sale or exchange of a capital asset held for more than 6 months, regardless of whether or not payments in consideration of such transfer are

(1) payable periodically over a period generally coterminous with the transferee's use of the patent, or

(2) contingent on the productivity, uše, or disposition of the property transferred.

(b) “HOLDER" DEFINED. -For purposes of this section, the term "holder" means-

(1) any individual whose efforts created such property, or

(2) any other individual who has acquired his interest in such property in exchange for consideration in money or money's worth paid to such creator prior to actual reduction to practice of the invention covered by the patent, if such individual is neither

(A) the employer of such creator, nor

(B) related to such créator (within the meaning of subsection (d)). (c) EFFECTIVE DATE.- This section shall be applicable with regard to any amounts received, or payments made, pursuant to a transfer described in subsection (a) in any taxable year to which this subtitle ápplies, regardless of the taxable year in which such transfer occurred.

(d) RELATED PERSONS.-Subsection (a) shall not apply to any transfer, directly or indirectly, between persons specified within any one of the paragraphs of section 267 (b); except that, in applying section 267 (b) and (c) for purposes of this section

(1) the phrase "25 percent or more" shall be substituted for the phrase "more than 50 percent" each place it appears in section 267 (b), and

(2) paragraph (4) of section 267, (c) shall be treated as providing that the family of an individual shall include only his spouse, ancestors, and lineal descendants. (e) Cross REFERENCE.

For special rule relating to nonresident aliens, see section 871 (a).

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