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able year, the amount of such inventory assets determined as if the taxable year closed at the time of such distribution.

(3) METHOD OF DETERMINING INVENTORY AMOUNT.--For purroses of this subsection, the inventory amount of assets under a method authorized by section 471 shall be determined

(A) if the corporation uses the retail method of valuing inventories under section 472, by using such method, or

(B) if subparagraph (A) does not apply, by using cost or market, whichever is lower. (c) LIABILITY IN Excess Of Basis.-If

(1) a corporation distributes property to a shareholder with respect to its stock,

(2) such property is subject to a liability, or the shareholder assumes a liability of the corporation in connection with the distribution, and

(3) the amount of such liability exceeds the adjusted basis (in the hands of the distributing corporation) of such property, then gain shall be recognized to the distributing corporation in an amount equal to such excess as if the property distributed had been sold at the time of the distribution. In the case of a distribution of property subject to a liability which is not assumed by the shareholder, the amount of gain to be recognized under the preceding sentence shall not exceed the excess, if any, of the fair market value of such property over its adjusted basis. SEC. 312. EFFECT ON EARNINGS AND PROFITS.

(a) GENERAL RULE.-Except as otherwise provided in this section, on the distribution of property by a corporation with respect to its stock, the earnings and profits of the corporation (to the extent thereof) shall be decreased by the sum of

(1) the amount of money,

(2) the principal amount of the obligations of such corporation, and

(3) the adjusted basis of the other property, so distributed. (b) CERTAIN INVENTORY ASSETS.

(1) IN GENERAL.-On the distribution by a corporation, with respect to its stock, of inventory assets (as defined in paragraph (2) (A)) the fair market value of which exceeds the adjusted basis thereof, the earnings and profits of the corporation

(A) shall be increased by the amount of such excess; and

(B) shall be decreased by whichever of the following is the lesser:

(i) the fair market value of the inventory assets distributed,

(ii) the earnings and profits (as increased under subparagraph (A)). (2) DEFINITIONS.-

(A) INVENTORY ASSETS.--For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "inventory assets” means

(i) stock in trade of the corporation, or other property of a kind which would properly be included in the inventory of the corporation if on hand at the close of the taxable year;

or

(ii) property held by the corporation primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of its trade or business; and

(iii) unrealized receivables or fees, except receivables from sales or exchanges of assets other than assets described in this subparagraph.

(B) UNREALIZED RECEIVABLES OR FEES. -For purposes of subparagraph (A) (iii), the term “unrealized receivables or fees” means, to the extent not previously includible in income under the method of accounting used by the corporation, any rights (contractual or otherwise) to payment for

(i) goods delivered, or to be delivered, to the extent that the proceeds therefrom would be treated as amounts received from the sale or exchange of property other than a capital asset, or

(ii) services rendered or to be rendered. (c) ADJUSTMENTS FOR LIABILITIES, ETC.-In making the adjustments to the earnings and profits of a corporation under subsection (a) or (b), proper adjustment shall be made for

(1) the amount of any liability to which the property distributed is subject,

(2) the amount of any liability of the corporation assumed by a shareholder in connection with the distribution, and

(3) any gain to the corporation recognized under subsection (b) or (c) of section 311. (d) CERTAIN DISTRIBUTIONS OF STOCK AND SECURITIES.

(1) IN GENERAL.—The distribution to a distributee by or on behalf of a corporation of its stock or securities, of stock or securities in another corporation, or of property, in a distribution to which this Code applies, shall not be considered a distribution of the earnings and profits of any corporation

(A) if no gain to such distributee from the receipt of such stock or securities, or property, was recognized under this Code, or

(B) if the distribution was not subject to tax in the hands of such distributee by reason of section 305 (a).

(2) PRIOR DISTRIBUTIONS.—In the case of a distribution of stock or securities, or property, to which section 115 (h) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 (or the corresponding provision of prior law) applied, the effect on earnings and profits of such distribution shall be determined under such section 115 (h), or the corresponding provision of prior law, as the case may be.

(3) STOCK OR SECURITIES.-For purposes of this subsection, the term "stock or securities” includes rights to acquire stock or securities.

(e) SPECIAL RULE FOR PARTIAL LIQUIDATIONS AND CERTAIN REDEMPTIONS.--In the case of amounts distributed in partial liquidation (whether before, on, or after June 22, 1954) or in a redemption to which section 302 (a) or 303 applies, the part of such distribution which is properly chargeable to capital account shall not be treated as a distribution of earnings and profits.

(f) EFFECT ON EARNINGS AND PROFITS OF GAIN OR LOSS AND OF RECEIPT OF Tax-FREE DISTRIBUTIONS.

(1) EFFECT ON EARNINGS AND PROFITS OF GAIN OR LOSS.—The gain or loss realized from the sale or other disposition (after February 28, 1913) of property by a corporation

(A) for the purpose of the computation of the earnings and profits of the corporation, shall (except as provided in subparagraph (B)) be determined by using as the adjusted basis the adjusted basis (under the law applicable to the year in which the sale or other disposition was made) for determining gain, except that no regard shall be had to the value of the property as of March 1, 1913; but

(B) for purposes of the computation of the earnings and profits of the corporation for any period beginning after February 28, 1913, shall be determined by using as the adjusted basis the adjusted basis (under the law applicable to the year in which the

sale or other disposition was made) for determining gain. Gain or loss so realized shall increase or decrease the earnings and profits to, but not beyond, the extent to which such a realized gain or loss was recognized in computing taxable income under the law applicable to the year in which such sale or disposition was made. Where, in determining the adjusted basis used in computing such realized gain or loss, the adjustment to the basis differs from the adjustment proper for the purpose of determining earnings and profits, then the latter adjustment shall be used in determining the increase or decrease above provided. For purposes of this subsection, a loss with respect to which a deduction is disallowed under section 1091 (relating to wash sales of stock or securities), or the corresponding provision of prior law, shall not be deemed to be recognized.

(2) EFFECT ON EARNINGS AND PROFITS OF RECEIPT OF TAX-FREE DISTRIBUTIONS.- Where a corporation receives (after February 28, 1913) a distribution from a second corporation which (under the law applicable to the year in which the distribution was made) was not a taxable dividend to the shareholders of the second corporation, the amount of such distribution shall not increase the earnings and profits of the first corporation in the following cases:

(A) no such increase shall be made in respect of the part of such distribution which (under such law) is directly applied in reduction of the basis of the stock in respect of which the distribution was made; and

(B) no such increase shall be made if (under such law) the distribution causes the basis of the stock in respect of which the distribution was made to be allocated between such stock and the property received (or such basis would, but for section 307 (b),

be so allocated). (g) EARNINGS AND PROFITS—INCREASE IN VALUE ACCRUED BEFORE MARCH 1, 1913. –

(1) If any increase or decrease in the earnings and profits for any period beginning after February 28, 1913, with respect to any matter would be different had the adjusted basis of the property involved been determined without regard to its March 1, 1913, value, then, except as provided in paragraph (2), an increase (properly reflecting such difference) shall be made in that part of the earnings and profits consisting of increase in value of property accrued before March 1, 1913.

(2) If the application of subsection (f) to a sale or other disposition after February 28, 1913, results in a loss which is to be applied

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1913.

in decrease of earnings and profits for any period beginning after February 28, 1913, then, notwithstanding subsection (f) and in lieu of the rule provided in paragraph (1) of this subsection, the amount of such loss so to be applied shall be reduced by the amount, if any, by which the adjusted basis of the property used in determining the loss exceeds the adjusted basis computed without regard to the value of the property on March 1, 1913, and if such amount so applied in reduction of the decrease exceeds such loss, the excess over such loss shall increase that part of the earnings and profits consisting of increase in value of property accrued before March 1,

(b) EARNINGS AND PROFITS OF PERSONAL SERVICE CORPORATIONS.—In the case of a personal service corporation subject for any taxable year to supplement S of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, an amount equal to the undistributed supplement S net income of the personal service corporation for its taxable year shall be considered as paid in as of the close of such taxable year as paid-in surplus or as a contribution to capital, and the accumulated earnings and profits as of the close of such taxable year shall be correspondingly reduced, if such amount or any portion thereof is required to be included as a dividend in the gross income of the shareholders.

(i) ALLOCATION IN CERTAIN CORPORATE SEPARATIONS.-In the case of a distribution or exchange to which section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) applies, proper allocation with respect to the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation and the controlled corporation (or corporations) shall be made under regulations prescribed by the Secretary or his delegate.

() DISTRIBUTION OF PROCEEDS OF LOAN INSURED BY THE UNITED STATES.

(1) IN GENERAL.-If a corporation distributes property with respect to its stock, and if, at the time of the distribution

(A) there is outstanding a loan to such corporation which was made, guaranteed, or insured by the United States (or by any agency or instrumentality thereof), and

(B) the amount of such loan so outstanding exceeds the adjusted basis of the property constituting security for such loan, then the earnings and profits of the corporation shall be increased by the amount of such excess, and immediately after the distribution) shall be decreased by the amount of such excess. poses of subparagraph (B) of the preceding sentence, the adjusted basis of the property at the time of distribution shall be determined without regard to any adjustment under section 1016 (a) (2) (relating to adjustment for depreciation, etc.). For purposes of this paragraph, a commitment to make, guarantee, or insure a loan shall be treated as the making, guaranteeing, or insuring of a loan.

(2) EFFECTIVE DATE.- Paragraph (1) shall apply only with respect to distributions made on or after June 22, 1954.

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Subpart C—Definitions; Constructive Ownership of Stock

Sec. 316. Dividend defined.
Sec. 317. Other definitions.

Sec. 318. Constructive ownership of stock.
SEC. 316. DIVIDEND DEFINED.

(a) GENERAL RULE.-For purposes of this subtitle, the term "dividend” means any distribution of property made by a corporation to its shareholders

(1) out of its earnings and profits accumulated after February 28, 1913, or

(2) out of its earnings and profits of the taxable year (computed as of the close of the taxable year without diminution by reason of any distributions made during the taxable year), without regard to the amount of the earnings and profits at the time the distribution

was made. Except as otherwise provided in this subtitle, every distribution is made out of earnings and profits to the extent thereof, and from the most recently accumulated earnings and profits. To the extent that any distribution is, under any provision of this subchapter, treated as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies, such distribution shall be treated as a distribution of property for purposes of this subsection. (b) SPECIAL RULES.

(1) CERTAIN INSURANCE COMPANY DIVIDENDS.—The definition in subsection (a) shall not apply to the term “dividend” as used in subchapter L in any case where the reference is to dividends of insurance companies paid to policyholders as such.

(2) DISTRIBUTIONS BY PERSONAL HOLDING COMPANIES.-In the case of a corporation which

(A) under the law applicable to the taxable year in which the distribution is made, is a personal holding company (as defined in section 542), or

(B) for the taxable year in respect of which the distribution is made under section 563(b) (relating to dividends paid after the close of the taxable year), or section 547 (relating to deficiency dividends), or the corresponding provisions of prior law, is a personal

holding company under the law applicable to such taxable year, the term “dividend” also means any distribution of property (whether or not a dividend as defined in subsection (a)) made by the corporation to its shareholders, to the extent of its undistributed personal holding company income (determined under section 545 without regard to distributions under this paragraph) for

such year. SEC. 317. OTHER DEFINITIONS.

(a) PROPERTY.-For purposes of this part, the term “property" means money, securities, and any other property; except that such term does not include stock in the corporation making the distribution (or rights to acquire such stock).

(b) REDEMPTION OF STOCK.-For purposes of this part, stock shall be treated as redeemed by a corporation if the corporation acquires its stock from a shareholder in exchange for property, whether or not the stock so acquired is cancelled, retired, or held as treasury stock.

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