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(e) STAY OF PROCEEDINGS.-If the Secretary or his delegate prior to the hearing of a suit brought by a taxpayer in a district court or the Court of Claims for the recovery of any income tax, estate tax, or gift tax (or any penalty relating to such taxes) mails to the taxpayer a notice that a deficiency has been determined in respect of the tax which is the subject matter of taxpayer's suit, the proceedings in taxpayer's suit shall be stayed during the period of time in which the taxpayer may file a petition with the Tax Court for a redetermination of the asserted deficiency, and for 60 days thereafter. If the taxpayer files a petition with the Tax Court, the district court or the Court of Claims, as the case may be, shall lose jurisdiction of taxpayer's suit to whatever extent jurisdiction is acquired by the Tax Court of the subject matter of taxpayer's suit for refund. If the taxpayer does not file a petition with the Tax Court for a redetermination of the asserted deficiency, the United States may counterclaim in the taxpayer's suit, or intervene in the event of a suit as described in subsection (c) (relating to suits against officers or employees of the United States), within the period of the stay of proceedings notwithstanding that the time for such pleading may have otherwise expired. The taxpayer shall have the burden of proof with respect to the issues raised by such counterclaim or intervention of the United States except as to the issue of whether the taxpayer has been guilty of fraud with intent to evade tax. This subsection shall not apply to a suit by a taxpayer which, prior to the date of enactment of this title, is commenced, instituted, or pending in a district court or the Court of Claims for the recovery of any income tax, estate tax, or gift tax (or any penalty relating to such taxes). (1) CROSS REFERENCES.
(1) For provisions relating generally to claims for refund or credit, see chapter 65 (relating to abatements, credit, and refund) and chapter 66 (relating to limitations).
(2) For duty of United States attorneys to defend suits, see section 507 of Title 28 of the United States Code.
(3) For jurisdiction of United States district courts, see section 1346 of Title 28 of the United States Code.
(4) For payment by the Treasury of judgments against internal revenue officers or employees, upon certificate of probable cause, see
section 2006 of Title 28 of the United States Code. SEC. 7423. REPAYMENTS TO OFFICERS OR EMPLOYEES.
The Secretary or his delegate, subject to regulations prescribed by the Secretary or his delegate, is authorized to repay
(1) COLLECTIONS RECOVERED.—To any officer or employee of the United States the full amount of such sums of money as may be recovered against him in any court, for any internal revenue taxes collected by him, with the cost and expense of suit; also
(2) DAMAGES AND COSTS.--All damages and costs recovered against any officer or employee of the United States in any suit brought against him by reason of anything done in the due perform
ance of his official duty under this title. SEC. 7424. CIVIL ACTION TO CLEAR TITLE TO PROPERTY. (a) OBTAINING LEAVE TO FILE.-
(1) REQUEST FOR INSTITUTION OF PROCEEDINGS BY UNITED STATES.-Any person having a lien upon or any interest in the property referred to in section 7403, notice of which has been duly
filed of record in the jurisdiction in which the property is located, prior to the filing of notice of the lien of the United States as provided in section 6323, or any person purchasing the property at a sale to satisfy such prior lien or interest, may make written request to the Secretary or his delegate to authorize the filing of a civil action as provided in section 7403.
(2) Petition to court.-If the Secretary or his delegate fails to authorize the filing of such civil action within 6 months after receipt of such written request, such person or purchaser may, after giving notice to the Secretary or his delegate, file a petition in the district court of the United States for the district in which the property is located, praying leave to file a civil action for a final determination of all claims to or liens upon the property in question.
(3) Court ORDER.-After a full hearing in open court, the district court may in its discretion enter an order granting leave to file such civil action, in which the United States and all persons having liens upon or claiming any interest in the property shall be made parties.
(b) ADJUDICATION.—Upon the filing of such civil action, the district court shall proceed to adjudicate the matters involved therein, in the same manner as in the case of civil actions filed under section 7403. For the purpose of such adjudication, the assessment of the tax upon which the lien of the United States is based shall be conclusively presumed to be valid.
(c) Costs.-All costs of the proceedings on the petition and the civil action shall be borne by the person filing the civil action. SEC. 7425. CROSS REFERENCES.
(1) For exclusion of tax liability from discharge in bankruptcy, see section 17 of the Bankruptcy Act, as amended (52 Stat. 851; 11 U. S. C. 35).
(2) For limit on amount allowed in bankruptcy proceedings on debts owing to the United States, see section 57 (j) of the Bankruptcy Act, as amended (52 Stat. 867; 11 U. S. C. 93).
(3) For recognition of tax liens in proceedings under the Bankruptcy Act, see section 67 (b) and (c) of that act, as amended (52 Stat. 876-877; 11 U. S. C. 107).
(4) For collection of taxes in connection with wage earners' plans in bankruptcy courts, see section 680 of the Bankruptcy Act, as added June 22, 1938 (52 Stat. 938; 11 U. S. C. 1080),
(5) For provisions permitting the United States to be made party defendant in a proceeding in a State court for the foreclosure of a lien upon real estate where the United States may have claim upon the premises involved, see section 2410 of Title 28 of the United States Code.
(6) For priority of lien of the United States in case of insolvency, see R. S. 3466 (31 U. S. C. 191).
(7) For interesi on judgments for overpayments, see section 2411 (a) of Title 28 of the United States Code.
(8) For review of a Tax Court decision, see section 7482.
(9) For statute prohibiting suits to replevy property taken under revenue laws, see section 2463 of Title 28 of the United States Code.
Subchapter C-The Tax Court
Part I. Organization and jurisdiction.
PART I-ORGANIZATION AND JURISDICTION
Sec. 7441. Status.
SEC. 7441. STATUS.
The Board of Tax Appeals shall be continued as an independent agency in the Executive Branch of the Government, and shall be known as the Tax Court of the United States. The members thereof shall be known as the chief judge and the judges of the Tax Court, SEC. 7442. JURISDICTION.
The Tax Court and its divisions shall have such jurisdiction as is conferred on them by this title, by chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the Internal Revenue Code of 19.39, by title II and title III of the Revenue Act of 1926 (44 Stat. 10-87), or by laws enacted subsequent to February 26, 1926. SEC. 7443. MEMBERSHIP.
(a) NUMBER.- The Tax Court shall be composed of 16 members,
(b) APPOINTMENT.-- Judges of the Tax Court shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, solely on the grounils of fitness to perform the duties of the office.
(c) Salary.--Each judge shall receive salary at the rate of $22,500 per annum, to be paid in monthly installments.
(d) EXPENSES FOR TRAVEL AND SUBSISTENCE. - Judges of the Tax Court shall receive necessary traveling expenses, and expenses actually incurred for subsistence while traveling on duty and away from their designated stations, subject to the same limitations in amount as are now or may hereafter be applicable to the United States Customs Court.
(e) TERM OF OFFICE.— The terms of office of all judges of the Tax Court shall expire 12 years after the expiration of the terms for which their predecessors were appointed; but any judge appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed shall be appointed only for the unexpired term of his predecessor.
(f) REMOVAL FROM OFFICE.-Judges of the Tax Court may be removed by the President, after potice and opportunity for public hearing, for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office, but for no other cause.
(g) DISBARMENT OF REMOVED JUDGES.-A judge of the Tax Court removed from office in accordance with subsection (1) shall not be permitted at any time to practice before the Tax Court. SEC. 7444. ORGANIZATION.
(a) SEAL.—The Tax Court shall have a seal which shall be judicially noticed.
(b) DESIGNATION OF CHIEF JUDGE.-- The Tax Court shall at least biennially designate a judge to act as chief judge.
(c) Divisions. The chief judge may from time to time divide the Tax Court into divisions of one or more judges, assign the judges of the Tax Court thereto, and in case of a division of more than one judge, designate the chief thereof. If a division, as a result of a vacancy or the absence or inability of a judge assigned thereto to serve thereon, is composed of less than the number of judges designated for the division, the chief judge may assign other judges to the division or direct the division to proceed with the transactiou of business without awaiting any additional assignment of judges thereto.
(d) QUORUM-A majority of the judges of the Tax Court or of any division thereof shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of the business of the Tax Court or of the division, respectively. A vacancy in the Tax Court or in any division thereof shall not impair the powers nor affect the duties of the Tax Court or division nor of the remaining judges of the Tax Court or division, respectively. SEC, 7445. OFFICES.
The principal office of the Tax Court shall be in the District of Columbia, but the Tax Court or any of its divisions may sit at any place within the United States. SEC. 7446. TIMES AND PLACES OF SESSIONS.
The times and places of the sessions of the Tax Court and of its divisions shall be prescribed by the chief judge with a view to securing reasonable opportunity to taxpayers to appear before the Tax Court or any of its divisions, with as little inconvenience and expense to taxpayers as is practicable. SEC. 7447. RETIREMENT. (a) DEFINITIONS.-For purposes of this section
(1) The term “Tax Court" means the Tax Court of the United States.
(2) The term "Civil Service Commission" means the United States Civil Service Commission.
(3) The term “judge” means the chief judge or a judge of the Tax Court; but such term does not include any individual performing judicial duties pursuant to subsection (c).
(4) The term "Civil Service Retirement Act" means the Civil Service Retirement Act of May 29, 1930, as amended.
(5) In any determination of length of service as judge there shall be included all periods (whether or not consecutive) during which an individual served as judge or as a member of the Board. (b) RETIREMENT.
(1) Any judge who has served as judge for 18 years or more may retire at any time.
(2) Any judge who has served as judge for 10 years or more and has attained the age of 70 shall retire not later than the close of the
third month beginning after whichever of the following months is the latest:
(A) the month in which he attained age 70;
(B) The month in which he completed 10 years of service as judge; or
(C) August 1953. Section 2 (a) of the Civil Service Retirement Act (relating to automatic separation from the service) shall not apply in respect of judges.
(c) RECALLING OF RETIRED JUDGES.-Any individual who is receiving retired pay under subsection (d) may be called upon by the chief judge of the Tax Court to perform such judicial duties with the Tax Court as may be requested of him for any period or periods specified by the chief judge; except that in the case of any such individual
(1) the aggregate of such periods in any one calendar year shall not (without his consent) exceed 90 calendar days; and
(2) he shall be relieved of performing such duties during any period in which illness or disability precludes the performance of
such duties. Any act, or failure to act, by an individual performing judicial duties pursuant to this subsection shall have the same force and effect as if it were the act (or failure to act) of a judge of the Tax Court; but any such individual shall not be counted as a judge of the Tax Court for purposes of section 7443 (a). Any individual who is performing judicial duties pursuant to this subsection shall be paid the same compensation (in lieu of retired pay) and allowances for travel and other expenses as a judge. (d) RETIRED Pay.--Any individual who after August 7, 1953—
(1) ceases to be a judge by reason of paragraph (2) of subsection (b), or ceases to be a judge after having served as judge for 18 years or more; and
(2) elects under subsection (e) to receive retired pay under this subsection, shall receive retired pay at a rate which bears the same ratio to the rate of the salary payable to him as judge at the time he ceases to be a judge as the number of years he has served as judge bears to 24; except that the rate of such retired pay shall be not less than one-half of the rate of such salary and not more than the rate of such salary. Such retired pay shall begin to accrue on the day following the day on which his salary as judge ceases to accrue, and shall continue to accrue during the remainder of his life. Retired pay under this subsection shall be paid in the same manner as the salary of a judge. In computing the rate of the retired pay under this subsection for any individual who is entitled thereto, that portion of the aggregate number of years he has served as a judge which is a fractional part of 1 year shall be eliminated if it is less than 6 months, or shall be counted as a full year if it is 6 months or more.
(e) ELECTION Ťo RECEIVE RETIRED PAY.-Any judge may elect to receive retired pay under subsection (d). Such an election
(1) may be made only while an individual is a judge (except that in the case of an individual who fails to be reappointed as judge at the expiration of a term of office, it may be made at any