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needs developed by the expected spring offen- Nitrate of soda is the foundation of smokesive of the Germans, it became necssary to less powder and high explosives as well as for divert to France a large tonnage of nitrate for other needed chemicals, and the purchase and manufacture of explosives in that country and importation of nitrate are conducted by govfor further increasing production of explosives ernment through the War Industries Board in this country for use in France. This im- in cooperation with the importers formerly mediate need made it impossible for the De- handling this material, the importers buying partment of Agriculture to secure boats suffi- in Chile as in times past. The government cient to bring in the full 109,000 tons so that received their nitrate through the importers 66,778 tons was actually imported in time for at cost and the profit charged by the importers use by the farmers for spring planting. to private users was controlled by the govern

Owing to military necessity, publicity could ment so that uniform cost to all users was not, of course, be given to the reason of the secured, this cost being based on the average non-arrival of the nitrate sold to the farmers, monthly cost in Chile, plus the freight storage, and this inability to deliver was the cause of exchange, and other elements of cost. considerable felling on the part of users of A committee known as the Nitrate Comnitrate of soda. The military necessity was mittee of the United States was established the greatest one and the planters who were with offices in New York and a New York unable to get the nitrate were in this way con- representative of the War Industries Board tributing to the supply of explosives in France, represented that board in the offices of this which later led to the winning of the war. committee. Government needs for nitrate

The nitrate of soda situation in the United were increasing rapidly and the 1919 requireStates up until about the first of August was ments would have been very large. During a serious one, although every explosive and the entire period of the war all needed nitrate chemical plant was kept supplied with suffi- was secured and there was no let up in the cient nitrate to maintain full operations at manufacture of war materials depending upon all times. This was done by drawing from this article. government arsenal reserves and by transferring stocks from fertilizer manufacturers and SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS other holders to plants when stocks were about PROFESSOR WALLACE CLEMENT SABINE, proexhausted. Owing to the shortage of nitrate,

fessor of physics at Harvard University and it was deemed wise to ask the importer to dis- formerly dean of the Lawrence Scientific continue sales of nitrate to fertilizer manu- School, died on January 10, aged fifty-one facturers other than for the making of sul

years. phuric acid, and after the first of July all con

DR. SIMON FLEXNER, director of the Laborasignments of nitrate arriving in the country

tories of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical sold to such manufacturers were comman

Research, has been elected a corresponding deered by the Ordnance Department and

member of the Société des Hôpitaux de turned over to munitions and chemical manu

Paris, and has had the title of Officier de Lefacturers. These contracts thus handled were

gion d'Honneur conferred upon him by the made between the importers and the fertilizer

French government. people in the fall of 1917.

Immediately on the signing of the armis- THE American Phytological Society at its tice, all restrictions were taken off of the im- tenth annual meeting, held in Baltimore, Deporters as far as sales of nitrate to fertilizer cember 23-28, elected the following officers: manufacturers and agricultural users was con

President, C. L. Shear, U. S. Department of cerned, so that there will be no difficulty in

Agriculture; Vice-president, I. E. Melhus, supplying the entire needs of the United Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa; SecretaryStates for agricultural use for spring planting. Treasurer, Geo. R. Lyman, U. S. Department for the year.

of Agriculture; Councilor, Donald Reddick, MR. NEIL M. JUDD, assistant curator of anCornell University. Dr. Lyman was also thropology, U. S. National Museum, has reelected Business Manager of Phytopathology turned to Washington after eleven months'

service in the aviation section of the national The following were elected officers of the

army. Association of American Geographers at the Dr. Oscar HARDER has resigned his position Baltimore meeting: President, Professor in the research department of N. K. Fairbanks Charles R. Dryer; First Vice-president, Dr. Co., Chicago, Ill., to accept a fellowship at the Herbert E. Gregory; Second Vice-president, Mellon Institute of Industrial Research, PittsDr. Isaiah Bowman; Secretary, Dr. Oliver L. burgh, Pa. Fassig; Treasurer, Mr. Francois E. Matthes;

Assistant PROFESSOR SAMUEL D. GRAYDON, Councilor for three years, Professor Eliot recently of the department of descriptive Blackwelder.

geometry and mechanical drawing, and who PROFESSOR C. K. LEITH sailed for France on has been in continuous service at Stevens InJanuary 1 to act as mineral adviser for the U. stitute of Technology as assistant professor S. Peace Commission. The party included since 1892, has been retired under the proChairman B. M. Baruch, of the War Industries visions of the Carnegie Foundation. Board; Chairman Vance McCormick, of the DR. L. BAUMANN, assistant professor and War Trade Board, and Walter Tower, of the director of research in the department of Shipping Board. For the past year Professor internal medicine of the University of Iowa, Leith has been in charge of the joint mineral has resigned his position to take effect at the work of these boards, with special reference to

end of the present college year. He will live regulation of imports and exports.

in New York City. BRIGADIER GENERAL WILLIAM S. THAYER, who MR. J. A. McClintock has resigned his pohas been serving in France, will, on his return

sition as extension specialist in cotton, truck to this country within a few days, resume his and forage crop diseases, to which he had been duties as professor of medicine of the the

appointed under a joint project between the Johns Hopkins Medical School. Dr. Thayer

U. S. Department of Agriculture and the will take the place of Dr. Theodore C. Jane

Georgia State College of Agriculture. way, who died several months ago while serv

At the request of the U. S. Food Adminising on the staff of the Surgeon-General.

tration, the Rockefeller Institute for Medical MAJOR John M. BERRY, formerly epidemiol- Research has granted a leave of absence to ogist in the New York State Department of Dr. Israel S. Kleiner in order that he might Health, has recently been promoted to the take charge of Professor Lafayette B. Mendel's rank of lieutenant colonel.

work at Yale University while the latter is Dr. Karl T. COMPTON, assistant professor attending the meetings of the Inter-Allied of physics in Princeton University, has re

Food Commission abroad. turned after a ten months' work for the Re- PROFESSOR PERCY F. FRANKLAND is retiring search Information Service in the capacity of from the Mason chair of chemistry in the associate scientific attaché to the American University of Birmingham at the end of the Embassy in Paris.

current term. In accepting the resignation DR. Ralph E. Wilson has left his work as

with great regret, the council has expressed an aeronautical mechanical engineer, Bureau of

to Professor Franklin its thanks for valuable Aircraft Production, to accept a position as

services rendered to the university during the astronomer, Department of Meridian Astron

past twenty-four years. omy, Carnegie Institution of Washington, sta- At the annual general meeting of the Farationed at the Dudley Observatory.

day Society of London, held on November 12,

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the following officers were elected: President, tory) has had placed at its disposal a farm for Sir Robert Hadfield, Bart., F.R.S.; Vice-pres- keeping animals used in research. Already idents, W. R. Bousfield K.C., F.R.S., Pro- work and experimentation in fowl influenza fessor F. G. Donnan, F.R.S., Dr. Eugene (roup), diphtheria and chicken-pox have been Haanel, Professor A. K. Huntington, Dr. T. begun. Martin Lowry, F.R.S., Professor Alfred W. Porter, F.R.S.; Treasurer, Robert L. Mond; UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL Council, G. S. Albright, W. R. Cooper, Dr.

NEWS C. H. Desch, Dr. J. A. Harker, F.R.S., Emil

PROPOSALS for extending the accommodation Hatschek, Cosmo Johns, Harold Moore, E. H.

and equipment of the department of pathology Rayner, Dr. George Senter, Cav. Magg, E.

and bacteriology at Leeds University have been Stassano.

approved. It is hoped to concentrate the whole At the annual meeting of the Washington of the bacteriological work of the city in the Academy of Sciences held at the Administra- additional accommodation provided by adapttion Building of the Carnegie Institution on ing the premises adjacent to the medical school. January 14, 1919, the retiring president, Dr. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lyman J. Briggs, delivered an address on The

plans to offer to students who have substanresistance of the air."

tially completed courses leading to the degree A Joint meeting of the Washington Acad- of bachelor of science in chemistry or chemical emy of Sciences and the Chemical Society of engineering, an opportunity to enter the school Washington was held on January 9, when Dr. of engineering practise in February. Two F. B. Power, retiring president of the Chemical terms of preparatory work will be given at Society, delivered an illustrated address on

Cambridge, the first beginning February 17; it The distribution and character of some of

is expected that the work at the practise stathe odorous principles of plants."

tions will begin about October 1, and continue

until the following May. The general plan of The annual Darwin Lecture of New York University will be given on February 12 by Dr.

the course will be the same as that carried out

while the school was in operation just before C. L. Bristol, of the department of biology. In

the opening of the war. connection with the lecture a series of motion pictures of marine life made in Naples, Italy,

THE Rev. EDWARD P. TIVNAN, S.J., professor will be shown by Dr. R. L. Ditmars, curator of

of chemistry and regent of the school of medireptiles, New York Zoological Gardens.

cine, Fordham University, has been appointed

president of the university, to succeed the Rev. A CABLE message announces the death in

Joseph A. Mulry, S.J.
Rome, on December 31, of David Lubin, of
San Francisco, founder of the International

The departments of descriptive geometry Institute of Agriculture, and the American

and mechanical drawing and of mechanism and representative on its permanent board. He

machine design at Stevens Institute of Techwas born in 1841, and was formerly a merchant

nology have been combined to form a new dein Sacramento, where early in his career he

partment of machine design, of which Frankmade a fortune. He then devoted himself to

lin DeR. Furman is professor and head. The

work of the department has been organized economic reforms and was responsible for the

with two divisions—one the mechanism diviestablishment at Rome of an international

sion, in which William R. Halliday is assistagency for collecting official and reliable in

ant professor, and the other the mechanical formation from all parts of the world as to the

drawing division, in which Edwin R. Knapp is acreage, output and ability of the cereal crops.

professor and Samuel H. Lott, assistant proTHROUGH an anonymous donor The Long fessor. The following changes in rank have Island College Hospital (Hoagland Labora- been made at the institute: Louis A. Hazeltine, acting professor in the department of electrical killed. I do not yet know if I shall succeed; books engineering, to professor; Robert M. Anderson, are necessary, and money is necessary to continue acting professor in the department of engineer

my publications and I fear it can not be obtained ing practise, to professor; Lewis E. Armstrong,

in France where they are much impoverished. I instructor in the department of mathematics,

look sadly at the manuscripts of my confrères, en

trusted to my care for publication. . . . I am quite to assistant professor.

a little disconcerted at being reduced to mendicancy MR. LESTER YODER, formerly with the chem- in my old days, for our learned societies, but the ical section of the Agricultural Experiment American devotion and generosity have been shown Station of Iowa State College, is now at the so great in these latter days, that we believe we U. S. Technological School, Carney's Point,

can be assisted by them openly. N. J.

If any one has any books or specimens that The chemistry department of the Univer- they think would be of assistance to Dr. sity of Nebraska announces the following addi

Barrois and his associates in connection with tions to its teaching staff: Dr. Horace G. Dem- the Library and Museum of the Society of the ing, of the University of Illinois, as professor Sciences, the Smithsonian Institution will be of chemistry in charge of general and physical very glad to transmit them to the society at chemistry; Mr. B. Clifford Hendricks, of Peru, Lille. Nebr., State Normal School, as assistant pro

CHARLES D. WALCOTT fessor of chemistry; Mr. T. J. Thompson, of Kansas Wesleyan University, as instructor in

ROOT PRESSURE AND ROOT EXUDATION organic chemistry.

A RECENT note in SCIENCE by Professor

Kremers? upon the use of dahlias for experiDISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE mental work upon osmosis reminds the writer THE LILLE SOCIETY OF SCIENCES

of his use of the same plant for the demTO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: I wish to call onstration of root pressure and the exudathe attention of American scientists to the tion of water in quantity. The growth from following extracts from a letter received from

the tuberous roots is vigorous and in a short Dr. Charles Barrois, professor of geology at

time is ready for the setting up of the exthe University of Lille and actively interested

periment. The quantity of water exuded and in the Society of the Sciences of Lille. Dr.

the pressure are adequate for a thorough demBarrois writes :

onstration of these phenomena as outlined for For four years I have been cut off from the num

example in Ganong's “ Plant Physiology" and ber of the living, reduced to servitude, without re

fully equal to the best plants which the writer ceiving a letter or a scientific book; I have not

has used in such demonstrations. been able during this time to communicate with In this connection the writer wishes to exanybody in the world, nor to have any news of my press a thought which has been more and family. That has been harder to me than physical more impressed upon him in his work as a sufferings and bombs.

teacher of physiology, pathology and even My geological institution has been twice demol

morphology of plants. Each institution, and ished by bombs, but I was able to save the collections from the debris and they were respected by

especially is this true of the smaller ones, is the Germans. Our library of the Society of Sci

working out its technical problems in ences was unfortunately burned so that I am much isolated fashion, often repeating unprofitable embarrassed in my work; the books of the Public experiments which have been found by other Library were also burned, those of the university institutions to be unsuccessful. In other were saved, but that was the least important li

cases especially useful plants or types of apbrary.

I am working at present to build up again my “Experimental Osmosis with a Living Memuniversity, our Geological Society of the North, all brane," Edward Kremers, SCIENCE, N. S., Vol. the members of which are scattered, ruined or XLVIII., No. 1250, December 13, 1918, p. 599.

an

16

Aver-
age

Poales

6.7

paratus are in use, the knowledge of which would be of great value both as time savers

Species Genera and as means of encouraging better teaching

Cat. N. Am. Pl., Heller, 19001 16,673 2,027 | 8.2 6.2 of botany. Why should there not be a free

Gray's Manual, 7 ed., 1908. 4,079 | 1,001| 4.1 6.7 exchange of such methods and ideas through

Fl. S. E. U. S., Small, 1903. 6,364 1,494 4.4

R. Mt. Man., Coult. & Nels., the medium of publication in one of our uni

1909.

2,733 649 4.2 4.2 versally distributed journals such as SCIENCE? R. Mt. Fl., Rydberg, 1918. . 5,897 1,038 5.7 7.3

Fl. Colo., Rydberg, 1906. 2,912 The writer suggests a special department, in

702 4.2 4.7

FI. N. Mex., Woot & Stand, such a magazine, devoted to technique where 1915.

2,903 848 3.4 4.1 not only successful experiments in teaching

Pl. of Conn., 1910.

1,942 621' 3.1 5.2 FI. Mich., Beal, 1892

1,746 554 | 3.2 4.2 are reported but also where negative results

Fl. N. D., Bergman, 1918 . 963 448 2.2 3.1 shall be stated. A magazine devoting space Fl. of Fargo, N. D., 1918. 520 295 1.8 2.3

FI. Vigo Co., Ind., Blatchley, to such a department would do much toward

1896..

853 423 2.0 2.6 advancing the technique of science. It may Bees of N. Mex., Ckll., 1906 561 72 7.8 be objected that such notes do appear from

Bees of Boulder Co., Colo.,
Ckll., 1907

175 42. 4.1 time to time in various magazines. This is true, but the writer is convinced that only a It will be noted that the averages vary in very small number of such notes appear as proportion to size and diversity of territory. compared with the total number of helpful

On account of this and narrow specific limits suggestions which should be the common prop Rydberg's “Rocky Mountain Flora” is one erty of men working in the same science. In

of the highest, notwithstanding his narrow this branch of educational work at least there

generic limits. New Mexico runs low on acshould be no selfish “patent” upon such mat- count of many Mexican genera entering the ters to be used as a drawing card” for the state. department or institution. Such a depart- Since the bees are but a suborder we may ment devoted to notes upon technique would scarcely compare them with larger groups. save all teachers of science much time which The Poales are perhaps the most nearly comthey now spend in fruitless testing out of parative group of the plants, although relamethods which some other institution has tively larger. The genus Carex is more nearly already demonstrated to its own satisfaction comparable than any other to the bee genus to be unsatisfactory. There would also be a Andrena, the number of species being about marked improvement in the teaching in the equal. smaller institutions at least, by the introduc- From Robertson's list we find the bees of tion of newer and better technique.

New Jersey are 2.7 per cent. of the total insect ERNEST SHAW REYNOLDS

list, while those of Carlinville are 23.0 per AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, N. D.

cent.; similarly, the Lower Aculeata are 4.9

per cent. and 16.2 per cent. From this and GENERIC LIMITATIONS

our knowledge of the extent of his work on THE deductions of Professor Robertson on these groups we might conclude the averages this subject in SCIENCE for October 11 seem to for other groups to be low on account of their be based upon questionable premises. Of the many unknown species. factors which influence the number of species Recognition of many small genera would in a genus, he mentions only the antiquity of seem to necessitate the elevation of old genera the group. Other important factors are: spe- and larger groups to higher rank, thus greatly cific limitations; size of group considered; area, increasing group names. Classification serves location and diversity of territory included; two purposes. Names have been often called degree of perfection of our knowledge of the handles," while the system presents the state species. These are illustrated in the following of our knowledge of relationships. For the list:

1 Includes varieties; others do not.

!

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