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in all of these stages, and consequently express essential part of this apparatus is a yoke of the action of imbibition and osmosis.
metal, which has two bearing screws resting The distinct action of imbibition and the on the trunk and carrying a third contact later joint action of hydration by osmosis and point on the end of the pen lever. It was not by imbibition may be most readily recognized, possible to make a practicable instrument in organs in which the region of growth is until a yoke could be constructed which generalized as in the ovate flattened joints of showed but little variation as a result of Opuntia or in such globular fruits as the to- changes in temperature. Three alloys with a mato. The measurement of the growth of one very low temperature coefficient, bario C., of these joints may be begun when it has a manganin and invar have been used and denlateral area no larger than the thumbnail, and drographs are now in operation on the trunks during this stage the increase is rapid and of two species of pine, and oak, an ash, a sycashows a minimum disturbance from changes in more and a beech tree, and as these instruexternal conditions, as shown by the illustra- ments were placed in position before growth tions. Growth continues throughout the en- began in 1919, there is every prospect that seatire mass until an advanced stage of develop- sonal records will be obtained from which the ment is reached, when it first slackens in the principal features of growth may be seen. basal portion. By this time large vacuoles have Weekly records show that these trees do not been formed in the thin-walled cells, and water behave alike and that many conditions are loss from the surfaces of the organ has reached to be considered in interpreting the records. such a rate that great daily variation in the It is evident for example that but little is volume results and actual shrinkage may en- known concerning the properties of bark as a sue. A similar history may be predicated for water-proofing or protecting coat for the tree. such structures as the large berry-like fruit of The loose bark of the ash and pine trees seems the tomato, it being noted that the material in to allow such a great water loss from the surboth illustrations takes on solid matter and face during the mid-day period as to cause water at such rate that not much alteration in actual shrinkage which does not occur in trees their proportions occurg during development such as the beech and live-oak, which have a
The enlargement of the trunk of a tree re- perfect living green outer bark or skin. The sults from the multiplication and growth of facts disclosed by these records can not fail cambium and other cells on the outside of the to be of interest in a discussion of any phase trunk directly inside and covered by the bark. of the complicated problem of the ascent of The trunk of the tree is in effect a cylinder of sap. moist but dead woody tissue surrounded by
D. T. MacDoUGAL a living sheath which becomes very active at DESERT BOTANICAL LABORATORY some time in the year and which as a result forms an additional layer or sheet of wood on the trunk which in cross section gives the ap
JOSEPH BARRELL pearance which has caused it to be designated AMERICAN geology has lost one of its foreas an annual ring of growth.
most leaders, one who promised to stand as The actual course of growth or formation of high as the highest. Professor Barrell's other these annual cylinders or, more strictly speak- colleagues will undoubtedly agree with Proing, cones, has not until recently been meas
fessor T. C. Chamberlin when he says: “We ured. In 1918 I was successful in making a had come to look upon him as one of the most working model of a dendrograph which might promising leaders in the deeper problems of be attached to the trunk of a tree in such earth science. We feel that his early demanner that its changes in volume due to parture is a very sad loss to our profession not whatever causes were traced on a ruled sheet only, but to the whole group of sciences that of paper carried by a revolving drum. The center in the earth and its constitution." Only a few days before his death there came and a tower of strength. During the summer to him the news of the highest honor that can months from 1893 onward, Barrell spent be given to an American scientist, election to nearly all the time in the field, working at the National Academy of Sciences. His elec- first as an engineer in the coal mines of Penntion, furthermore, was by a unanimous vote sylvania, then in the mines of Butte, Montana, of the academicians present at the April meet- devoting one summer to the geology of southing in Washington, and such a vote is rare in ern Europe, and later studying widely the the academy.
geology of the Appalachians and of the New Joseph Barrell, the son of a farmer, was England States. born at New Providence, N. J., December 15, Professor Barrell's first publications, in 1869, and died of pneumonia and spinal men- 1899 to 1900, deal with mining, but since 1901 ingitis in New Haven on May 4, 1919. He nearly all his work has been in geology. His leaves a wife and four sons. Standing 5 feet bibliography has upward of forty-five titles, 10.5 inches in height, of the blue-eyed Nordic totalling more than 1,500 pages. Several type, with a full head of wavy light-brown articles remain unpublished, at least two of hair, he was spare and slender in build, but which it is hoped to print during this year. A characterized by great muscular strength in more detailed account of his life and work will comparison to body weight. He was of the appear in an autumn number of the American eighth American generation from the Puritan Journal of Science. George Barrell, who migrated from Suffolk, Barrell's most important work has to do England, and settled at Boston in 1637. This with the strength of the earth's crust. The first American Barrell began as a cooper, but series of papers bearing that title examine into most of his descendants have been sea-going the mechanics of the earth considered as a people and shipping merchants. The most body under stress, owing to the variation in widely known and wealthiest was Joseph Bar- density and form which mark its outer shell." rell of Boston, after whom the subject of our He was all the more able to handle this most sketch, his great-grandson, was named. This difficult subject because of his thorough trainJoseph Barrell is said to have "early espoused ing in engineering at Lehigh. His last work and firmly maintained the cause of his coun- along this line will be published this fall. try,” and for a time represented the town of From the manuscript we learn that “The Boston in the State Legislature. It was in larger features of the earth's surface are sushis splendid home that General George Wash- tained in solid flotation, and at some depth ington was entertained during his visit to the strains due to the unequal elevations Boston.
largely disappear, the elevations being comProfessor Barrell received the first part of pensated by variations of density within the his collegiate education at Lehigh University, crust. In consequence, the subcrustal shell is taking in due course its B.S., E.M. and M.S. subjected to but little else than hydrostatic degrees, and in 1916 this institution gave him pressure.” Isostatic balance is, however, not its doctorate of science. From 1893 to 1897 everywhere in adjustment, but the adjusthe was instructor in mining and metallurgy ments are held to be irregular and imperfect at his alma mater, and then was given leave in distribution and mostly concentrated in the of absence to go to Yale for graduate studies outer one hundredth of the earth's radius, in geology, taking his Ph.D. degree in 1900. with a tendency to progressively disappear Returning to Lehigh, he was made assistant with depth. On the other hand," the outer professor of geology, and for three years crust is very strong, capable of supporting intaught not only geology but zoology as well. dividual mountains, limited mountain ranges, In 1903 he was called to Yale as assistant pro- and erosion features of corresponding magnifessor of geology and in 1908 promoted to the tude." chair in structural geology. In the geological Barrell also did much toward working out department at Yale he was a unifying force the criteria by which the climates, marine deltas and geographies of the geologic past the fresh waters of the lands, and thence may be discerned in the sediments or stratified migrated to the seas. Also that lungs develrocks that make up the greater portion of the oped out of air-bladders in water-breathing geologic record. This work brings out espe- animals caught in recurrent epochs of semicially the importance in earth history of the aridity. Such great environmental changes ancient formations laid down upon the lands brought about the necessity for change from by the fresh waters and the wind, in con- a water habitat to seasonal dry ones, and tradistinction to those deposited by the seas hence “the piscine fauna which endured these and oceans.
conditions came through profoundly changed." The length of geologic time was another The primitive sharks of Silurian time, having problem that deeply interested Barrell. In his no air-bladder, “ were driven to the seas. The “Rhythms and the Measurements of Geologic fresh-water fishes which remained were ganoids Time," he came to the conclusion that through and dipnoans, fishes with air-bladders efficient the rhythmic oscillations of the terrestrial for the direct use of air.” Finally, from crossprocesses which the earth has undergone, its opterygian ganoids, under the stimulus of the age is many times greater than even geologists semiaridity of the Devonian, there emerged in general have imagined-in fact, that it is the amphibians, able to carry forward their of the order of about 1,500 million years. activities as terrestrial animals.
A fourth line of research which occupied Similarly, he held that man was brought Barrell was the origin and genesis of the to his present high physical and mental state earth, and here he extended in modified form not merely as the “product of time and life," the Chamberlin-Moulton planetesimal hypothe- but that he is “peculiarly a child of the earth sis, i. e., that the planets and their moons and is born of her vicissitudes.” The changarose out of the sun during a time of induced ing climates during the Pliocene and Pleistotidal disruption. Some of his best work was cene, acting upon the vegetation of these to develop along this line, and an extensive times, caused the prevalent forests of Asia, he manuscript on “The Genesis of the Earth” is thinks, to dwindle away, producing "a rigorready for publication.
ous natural selection which transformed an Since 1913, Barrell has on a number of oc- ape, largely arboreal and frugivorous in habits, casions taken opportunity to point out that into a powerful, terrestrial, bipedal primate, the supposed Mesozoic peneplain of southern largely carnivorous in habit, banding together New England was in reality “stairlike or ter- in the struggle for existence, and by that raced in its character, facing the sea, and means achieving success in chase and war. bore the marks of ultimate control by marine The gradual elimination, first of the food of denudation. These terraces (more than five the forests, lastly of the refuge of the trees, in number] are now dismantled by erosion ex- through increasing semiaridity, would have cept in regions favored by the presence of been a compelling cause as mandatory as the broadly developed resistant rock structures. semiaridity which compelled the emergence of
All are regarded as younger than the vertebrates from the waters, transforming Miocene." With this view, he adds, we get fishes into amphibians." “a suggestion of the geological rapidity of
CHARLES SCHUCHERT completion of an erosion cycle in a region YALE UNIVERSITY near the sea and of a sequence of diastrophic rhythms there recorded." Here too there is
SCIENTIFIC EVENTS considerable manuscript that will be published
THE SOLAR ECLIPSE1 later on.
TELEGRAMS received by the Astronomer Finally, the evolutionary problems con
Royal report that at the station at Sobral, in nected with paleontology claimed his interest,
Brazil, occupied by Dr. Crommelin and Mr. and he has presented evidence to show that fishes probably arose in the early Paleozoic in 1 From Nature.
Davidson for photographing the field of stars La Paz, Bolivia, where the eclipse happened at round the sun on the occasion of the total sunrise, with coronal cameras and with instrueclipse of the sun last week (May 29), the sky ments for measuring the sky radiations by day was clear for at least part of totality, and that and night, but it is too early to have heard of the program was satisfactorily carried out. any results of such observations. Also it has The photographs have been developed, and all been announced that Professor D. P. Todd the stars expected are shown on the plates would take photographs of the eclipse from an taken with the astrographic lens, as well as aeroplane at a height of 10,000 feet from the on those taken with a second telescope lent by neighborhood of Monte Video, where the Father Cortie. The expedition will remain at eclipse would only be partial. Sobral until the necessary comparison photographs are taken in situ. The message from
REVISTA MATEMATICA HISPANO-AMERICANA Professor Eddington at Prince's Island, off the UNDER the above title a new mathematical coast of West Africa, which reads “ Through periodical began to appear at the beginning cloud, hopeful,” may be taken to imply that of the present year, which may be of some some success will also be derived from the general scientific interest both on account of work of this expedition.
territory covered by its title and also on acIt will be remembered that Professor Ed- count of some of its unique aims. One of dington and Mr. Cottingham were provided these is the publication of corrections of errors with the 13-inch object-glass of the astro- found anywhere in the mathematical literagraphic telescope of the Oxford University Ob- ture. These corrections are to appear in a servatory, whilst the observers in Brazil had special section headed Glosario Matematico. the similar object-glass from Greenwich, and
While mathematics is an exact science its that the program of both stations was to take literature is by no means free from differphotographs of the stars that surrounded the ent types of errors, varying from slight sun, of which there are at least twelve within oversights to those relating to matters of 100% of the sun's center of photographic mag
fundamental importance. The majority of nitude ranging from 4.5 to 7.0, for the pur- these errors are readily recognized by the pose of testing Einstein's relativity theory of careful reader and need only to be pointed out gravitation, and also the hypothesis that to be acknowledged; but, as mathematics gravitation, in the generally accepted sense,
grades gradually into various inexact sciences acts on light. Photographs that have been -such as philosophy, history and physics-it taken during the eclipse will be compared with is clear that a part of its literature relates to others that have been, or will be, taken of the the eternal approximations towards an unsame stars in the night sky to detect any dis
stable limit and here the question of errors placement that may be considered to be due to connects up with endless words. the presence of the sun in the field.
The corrections in the Revista, published at There is at present no information as to the
Santa Teresa, 8, Madrid, Spain, are supposed type of the corona, and apparently few observ- to be confined to the former type of errors and ing parties have been organized to make ob- these corrections may serve the double purpose servations to record this. From a note in the of curtailing the repetition of such errors and daily press last week, said to emanate from the of pointing out somewhat slippery ground in Yerkes Observatory, it seems not unlikely that mathematical fields. It is also of interest to a large prominence may have been on the walk securely over ground where experts limb of the sun at the time of the eclipse. slipped by overlooking lurking dangers which
It had been announced that the Cordoba Ob- their slipping caused to change to wellservatory would dispatch an expedition to marked pitfalls. Brazil, and that possibly Professor Abbot, of General interest in this new mathematical the Smithsonian Institution, would proceed to periodical may perhaps be enlisted by the candid manner in which the unfavorable mathe- Dr. Roy E. Dickerson, honorary curator of matical situation among the Spanish-speaking the Department of Invertebrate Paleontology, people is depicted in a short note appearing in sailed May 31 with Mrs. Dickerson for Manila, the first number of this journal.
Philippine Islands. Dr. Dickerson will make paratively slight contributions made by these an investigation of the Phillippine Islands people along the line of mathematical re- with a view to the location of oil deposits. search stands in great contrast with the large During Dr. Dickerson's connection with the advances made by the people living immedi. California Academy of Sciences as curator of ately north of Spain.
the department of invertebrate paleontology One of the most important steps towards the important research work was carried on in the remedy of an unfortunate public situation is geology of the Pacific coast area, which reto exhibit the great need of such a remedy. It ceived publication in the Proceedings of the is hoped that the present journal may be suc- academy. These papers are much in demand cessful in this direction and also in awakening at present by the commercial interests eninterest in a field which is so fundamental for gaged in oil production. the further scientific development of the people using the Spanish language. The editor FOREIGN DELEGATES AND GUESTS AT THE AT
LANTIC CITY MEETING OF THE AMERICAN of the journal is J. Rey Pastor.
were in attendance at the meeting. Apart from EXPEDITIONS OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY
Canadians they were as follows:
Lehman, Wilmer S., Lolodorf, Cameroon, W.
Africa. the California Academy of Sciences, has just
Casier, Baron Ernest, Belgium. returned from a three months' study of the flora of Arizona and New Mexico. Miss East
Depage, Antoine, Belgium.
Duesberg, J., Belgium. wood's special mission was to collect trees and
Melis, L., Brussels, Belgium. shrubs but chiefly cottonwoods for Professor
Nolf, P., Brussels, Belgium. C. S. Sargent of the Arnold Arboretum in
Sand, Réné, Brussels, Belgium. connection with the revision of his Trees of
Captain Van de Velde, Belgium. North America. At the same time Miss East- Chutro, Pedro, Buenos Aires. wood made important additions to the her- Lee, S. T., Peking, China. barium of the academy.
Leonard, Eliza E., Peking, China.
Ting-han, Chang, China. partment of herpetology, sailed on June 14 on
Almila, E., Havana, Cuba. the steamer Alliance for La Paz, Mexico, with
Carrera, Julio, Cuba.
Fernandez, Francisco M., Havana, Cuba. the purpose of investigating the reptiles and amphibians of the cape region of the penin- Martinez, Emilo, Cuba.
Guiteras, Juan, Cuba. sula. Mr. Slevin is accompanied by Mr.
Somodevilla, Santiago U., San Luis, Cuba. Gordon F. Ferris, instructor in entomology of
Kingman, E. L., Zaruma, Ecuador. Stanford University. Mr. Ferris is commis
Brown, W. Herbert, Glasgow, Scotland. sioned by Stanford University to make a spe- Dimsey, Edgar R., British Admiralty. cial study of the scale insects of the region Groves, Ernest W. Hey, England. and will also collect for the departments of Hurst, Arthur F., England. entomology and invertebrate zoology of the Lane, Sir William Arbuthnot, England. California Academy of Sciences. This work Murphy, Shirley, England. will be chiefly in the lower third of the penin- Newsholme, Sir Arthur, England. sula and will require about three months time.
Rose, Frank A., London, England.