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DR. BENJAMIN PALMER CALDWELL, formerly by clouds, the meteor made its presence known of Tulane University, New Orleans, and for by violent detonations, accompanied by the the past three years professor of chemistry in spalling off of fragments. The first of these Oglethorpe University, Atlanta, has accepted fell near Sawyer P. O., not far from the Fallsthe professorship of analytical chemistry in of-the-Cumberland. the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, and The concussions produced by the bolide will begin his work there in the autumn. were terrific, causing buildings to rock, and
At the University of Saskatchewan, Assist- producting the impression on some that the ant Professor L. L. Dines has been promoted region was being visited by an earthquake. .
The first news of the phenomenon printed in to a full professorship of mathematics.
the local papers so recorded it. Realizing DR. ALEXANDER MCPHEDRAN has resigned that the detonations heard and shocks felt the professorship of medicine in the Univer- were due to the concussions produced by a sity of Toronto medical department, and Dr. falling meteorite the writer through the meDuncan A. L. Graham has been appointed his dium of these local papers, and by correspondsuccessor. The Journal of the American Med
ence with postmasters and telegraph operators ical Association states that recently Sir Wil throughout the district affected has succeeded liam Osler invited professors of medicine in in determining the path of the meteor and has the United Kingdom to a dinner in Dr. Gra- secured a number of the fragments. The ham's honor, at which it was stated that Dr.
main mass appears to be yet undiscovered. Graham was the first whole-time professor of Falling in the most rugged and sparsely medicine appointed in the British empire. settled portion of southeastern Kentucky the The appointment was made possible by the prospects of this main mass being found are munificence of Sir John Eaton, Toronto. As not promising. a result all physicians in the service of the The general azimuth of the meteor in its medical department at the university will re- fall seems to have been about north 30 degrees sign, so that Dr. Graham will have a free hand west. Over Kentucky it paralleled roughly in selecting his own staff.
the line of the Cincinnati Southern Railroad. Dr. F. A. LINDEMANN has been appointed to
An interesting incident in this connection is succeed Professor Clinton in the chair of ex
the record of the progress of the meteor kept perimental philosophy at the University of by the telegraph and telephone operators in Oxford.
the railroad stations and signal towers. They
actually put it on a schedule something like Dr. S. W. J. Smith, F.R.S., assistant pro
an "extra,” and heralded to operators ahead fessor at the Imperial College, South Kensing
the arrival opposite them to the east of this ton, and for many years secretary of the Physi- mysterious visitor. The operator on another cal Society of London, has been elected to the
branch of the Southern Road at Coal Creek Poynting chair of physics in the University of
Tennessee saw the meteor disappear to the Birmingham.
northwest at 12:21 P.M. The tower man at
Tatesville, Ky., heard violent detonations to DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE
the east, and felt his tower rock at 12:27. THE CUMBERLAND FALLS METEORITE Telephoning ahead to the Danville, Ky., operaOn April 9, last, a brilliant meteor was seen tor, while yet talking to him he heard him reat mid-day to fall in a northwesterly direction ply at 12:30 “I hear it coming now.” The across northeastern Tennessee. Though the distance from Tatesville to Danville in an air sun was shining in this section, observers de- line is 48 miles. It took the meteor sounds, scribe the light from the meteor as exceeding therefore, 3 minutes to travel this 48 miles. the sun in brightness. Passing over south- How much of this is due to the rate of sound eastern Kentucky, where the sky was obscured traveling in air and how much to the northwest component rate of the falling meteorite mary of my observations on it between 8:38 can not at present be stated. It seems now and 10:30 P.M. (75th meridian time), May 2. to be pretty well established that the meteor There were streamers of increasing prominever crossed to the west side of the Cincin
nence from the time I first observed the disnati Southern Railroad.
play at 8:38, until the culmination at 8:50 to For the forthcoming Bulletin of the Ken- 8:55, when the sky from the north-northwest to tucky Geological Survey the writer has de- north by west was covered from about 10 delineated upon a map of a portion of south- grees to a height of 45 or 50 degrees with a eastern Kentucky the area in which all the deep crimson light. The auroral arch, which fragments of the meteorite will probably be was unusually narrow and sharply defined befound. At present writing seven pieces rang
low, and at times subdivided in two or three ing in weight from 13 oz. to 54 lbs. have been parts, continued with varying brightness and found that by their covering of glaze indicate
altitude (base about 8 to 15 degrees) till 10:30, that the split off from the main mass at a con
at least. There was some moderate streamer siderable distance from the ground. Fifty-two display from time to time. The effect of the pieces weighing from less than an ounce up to
auroral display was heightened by the sweep four pounds have been found that are parts of
of searchlight beams from the south, and by a mass weighing originally about 31 pounds.
the presence of the relatively new moon in This mass was broken into these numerous
conjunction with Venus. fragments as the result of falling on top of
A very similar display was observed here
February 27, 1919, from 8:50 till after 11 P.M., the conglomerate cliff which forms the walls
with crimson coloration in the north to an of the gorge of the Cumberland River below
altitude of about 40° at 10:45 to 10:50. the Falls.
CHARLES F. BROOKS The larger fragments, which split off from
CHEVY CHASE, the main mass at a considerable height, be
WASHINGTON, D. C. sides the covering of glaze, have the characteristic pittings of meteorites. They are light MEETING OF PLANT PATHOLOGISTS ON LONG gray in color, and exhibit a brecciated struc
ISLAND TO DISCUSS POTATO DISEASES ture. A chemical examination of the material The summer potato inspection tour and conof which they are composed, made by Dr. Al
ference arranged by the Advisory Board, fred Peter, of the Kentucky Agricultural Ex- American Plant Pathologists, will be held periment Station, shows it to be mainly the on Long Island from June 24 to 27, 1919 for mineral enstatite (silicate of magnesium).
the special purpose of studying potato moThrough this is disseminated microscopic par
saic and leaf roll. The members of the party ticles of nickel-iron and iron combined with
will meet at the Griffen House, Riverhead, sulphur in an amount not exceeding two
Long Island, Tuesday evening, for dinner, tenths of one per cent. Small amounts of
after which there will be a meeting at the sodium and calcium are also present. The
Court House. meteorite would therefore be classed as
The next day will be spent in a tour of inchondritic aerolite. It has the same specific spection of test plots of potatoes on the north gravity as enstatite, 3.18.
side from Riverhead to Orient Point. There ARTHUR M. MILLER
will be an informal conference at Riverhead DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY,
during the evening. On June 26, a trip will UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY,
be made to the south side, the day being spent May 14, 1919
in the inspection of an experimental test plot
at Wainscott, and in conferences at SouthON THE AURORAL DISPLAY OF MAY 2, 1919 ampton. The party will then take an evening
The notes on this display, in SCIENCE, May train to Garden City, Nassau County. The 23, 1919, lead me to offer the following sum- following day, June 27, will be spent in the
inspection of experimental plots at Glen Head vide the means of transporting the party about and in visiting a few of the large truck farms the island. for which Nassau County is famous. An
M. F. BARRUS, evening meeting will be held at New York Chairman, Committee of Arrangements City. The experimental test plots consist of plant
SCIENTIFIC BOOKS ings of healthy, mosaic, and leaf roll seed
Appendages of Trilobites. By CHARLES D. tubers obtained from northern and central
Walcott, Smithsonian Misc., Coll., Vol. 67, New York, Vermont, Maine, Long Island,
No. 4, Cambrian Geol. and Pal., IV., DePrince Edward Isle, and Bermuda. Records of the behavior during 1918 of the parent
cember, 1918, pp. 115–216 + index, Pls.
14–42, Text Figs. 1-3. plants will be compared with the behavior this
In this recent paper Dr. Charles D. Walcott year of the progeny. Much of this seed has
summarizes his investigations of the appendbeen planted under the direction of pathologists who have been investigating these dis
ages of trilobites during the past forty-five
years, a research undertaken in pursuance of eases. An opportunity will also be afforded to
a promise made to Professor Louis Agassiz in compare fields planted with seed from the north and with Long Island grown seed; of
1873. Since that time, he writes, “I have
examined and studied all the trilobites that fields planted with mature and with immature seed.
were available for evidence bearing on their Noted potato pathologists from the United
structure and organization.” States, Canada and Bermuda will be present
His summary of 18812 is reviewed and cor
rected, together with later papers discussing to explain the various tests, to point out the
his various discoveries in this subject. 3 The characteristic symptoms, and to discuss the results observed here as well as other experi
highly organized trilobite, Neolenus serratus ments they have conducted. The bearing of
(Rominger), from the Burgess shale quarry these observations and studies on seed certifi
opened by Dr. Walcott, near Field, B. C., cation will be given consideration at the con
several years ago, shows most graphically in ferences held during the tour. Invitations
the ten plates devoted to its illustration the have been extended to a pathologist of Eng- highly specialized development of appendages, land, of Ireland and of Holland, and some as
which is also figured in plates of the Ordosurance has been received that one or more
vician trilobites, Isotelus, Triarthrus, Calyof these men will be present. It is expected by
mene and Ccraurus. In the figure of Neolenus means of these observations and discussions
the appendages include antennules, caudal that considerable light will be thrown upon
rami, endopodites, epipodites, exopodites, exthe nature and behavior of these serious and
ites and protopodites. The evidence of apbaffling diseases and that thereby measures
pendages is supplemented by numerous figured for control will be better understood.
sections of Ceraurus and Calymene. Every pathologist interested in potatoes or 2 The Trilobite: New and Old Evidence Relating in these particular types of diseases should to its Organization, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Camplan, if possible, to attend, for the occasion is bridge, Mass., Vol. VIII., No. 10, 1881, pp. 191unusual in material available for study and
224, Pls. I.-VI. in instruction presented. Horticulturists,
3 Proc, Biol. Soc. Washington, Vol. IX., 1894, p.
94. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 57, 1912, pp. agronomists and other persons interested are
164, 208, Pl. 24, Figs. 1, la. Idem, 1911, Pl. 6, invited to join the pathologists.
Figs. 1, 2; 1912, Pl. 24, Figs. 1, la; Pl. 45, Figs. Person's planning to attend should at once 1, 2, 3, 4. Text-book Pal. (Zittel), Eastman 2d ed., inform the writer in order that accommoda
1913, Vol. I., p. 701, Fig. 1,343, p. 716, Figs. 1,376, tions may be reserved for them. The farmers 1,377. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 57, 1912, pp. of Long Island have generously offered to pro- 149-153.
After discussing the mode of occurrence, In its younger stages of growth a free moving conditions of preservation, manner of life in- and swimming animal, it later became a half-bur. cluding method of progression, food, defense rowing, crawling and sometimes swimming animal and offense, the author describes species with
and moving at times with the flow of the tides and
prevailing currents. Eggs have been found both appendages, which include besides the genera
within and free from the body. ... It was at home already mentioned, Kootenia dawsoni (Wal
on many kinds of sea-bottom and was able to accott), two species of Ptychoparia including a
commodate itself to muddy as well as clear water. new one P. permulta from the Burgess shale It was intensely gregarious in some localities and quarry, Odonotopleura trentonensis (Hall), widely scattered in others, depending upon local Trinucleus concentricus Eaton, and an un- conditions, and habits of the various species. identified Ordovician crustacean leg. The Trilobites had an ample system of respiration by work of C. E. Beecher with Triarthrus is setiferous exopodites, epipodites, and exites atreviewed in some detail, and a different con
tached to the cephalic, thoracic and abdominal clusion arrived at in certain features.
limbs [as shown in restorations of the limbs on
plates 34 and 35). In section two of the paper the structure
The structure of the gnathobases of the cephalic of the trilobite receives attention, the author
limbs indicates soft food such as worms, minute again referring to Beecher and other writers
animal life and decomposed algæ. . . . The triloincluding Jaekel, Beyrich, Barrande and de
bite persisted from far back in pre-Cambrian time Volborth. He then discusses in detail the ap- to the close of Carboniferous time ... and left pendages, summarizing them as follows: its remains more or less abundantly through about
Cephalic: (1) Antennules, (2) antennæ, 75,000 feet of stratified rocks. (3) mandibles, (4) maxillula, (5) maxilla.
The paper is profusely illustrated and careThoracic:
fully indexed. Abdominal:
G. R. BRIGHAM Caudal rami: Further comparisons are with the recent
SPECIAL ARTICLES Anaspides tasmaniæ G. M. Thomson, a Mala
PRESOAKING AS A MEANS OF PREVENTING costracan from Tasmania, Koonunga cursor
SEED INJURY DUE TO DISINFECTANTS Sayce, and Paranaspides lacustris Smith, also
AND OF INCREASING GERMI
CIDAL EFFICIENCY parasitic crustacean Cyamus scammoni Dall, illustrations of all of which are given.
In the course of investigations on the bacAfter the extraordinary interest of the finely
terial black-chaff disease of wheat, under the developed specimens in the plates representing
direction of Dr. Erwin F. Smith, a new method Neolenus, attention will be drawn by those of
of seed treatment has been discovered which Isotelus, Triarthrus becki Green, and other
practically eliminates seed injury due to the Ordovician trilobites, together with the sec
use of disinfectants, and at the same time tions of Cambrian and Ordovician trilobites,
renders pathogens on the seed coats more susand finally the author's conclusions as ceptible to the action of the disinfectant. pressed by several diagrammatic restorations, This is accomplished by allowing the seeds to also sketches of thoracic limbs of trilobites absorb water for a definite period in advance and recent crustaceans, crustacean limbs, and of treatment. The saturation of the cells and six plates of tracks and trails of trilobites, cell-walls with water before treatment, by dieach adding evidence to the author's deduc- luting the full-strength disinfectant beyond the tions as to the appendages.
point of injury as it enters the tissues, in acSome conclusions drawn are that the trilo- cordance with the law of diffusion of dissolved bite's appendages show him to have been a substances, is the explanation of the results marine crustacean far more highly developed obtained. Not only is injury to germination than would have seemed possible in a period prevented, but the germination of seeds thus so infinitely remote.
treated is stimulated, reducing the danger of
seed infection by soil organisms during the control by these disinfectants, with variations sensitive period of germination.
of course in the length of the presoak period On the other hand, experiments with wheat (which is six hours for wheat, barley and oats, seeds infected with the black-chaff organism and ten to eighteen hours for maize) and of have shown that this method used with for- the subsequent disinfectant period, as found malin will completely destroy the organism on necessary for each kind of seed and pathogen. the kernels. After screening and fanning to The use of this method in farm practise inremove shrivelled grains, the treatment should volves no radical change in present procedure be made by soaking infected seeds for ten other than to keep seeds moist for definite minutes in water then draining and keeping periods before treatment. If the use of the moist for six hours. They are then soaked ten presoak method is found efficient for the minutes in formalin 1:400 solution (1 lb. to 50 cereal smuts and other diseases as well as for gallons of water) drained, and covered for six the black-chaff disease of wheat, it will result hours; then dried over-night and planted next in a saving of most of the seed now lost by day. If copper sulfate is used, the presoaked present methods of treatment and also in inseeds are thoroughly wetted in the 1:80 solu- creased germicidal efficiency. The formulation (1 lb. to 10 gallons of water) for ten tion of this method, as here reported and later minutes, drained and kept moist twenty min- to be given in detail, opens up a wide field for utes, plunged for a moment into milk of lime, the reinvestigation of practical seed treatment dried over-night and planted. The effect of for the control of seed-transmitted diseases by the presoaking with water, besides preventing chemical disinfectants. HARRY BRAUN seed injury, is to stimulate dried and dormant LABORATORY OF PLANT PATHOLOGY, bacteria on the seed coat, into vegetative ac- BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY, tivity, thereby rendering them more sensitive
U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE to the action of the disinfectant which must be applied at the end of the presoak period and THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL of course before the seeds have begun to germi
SOCIETY nate. This is fully in accord with the estab- The annual general meeting of the society was lished principle that microorganisms in a vege- held from April 24 to 26 and a program of over tative condition are more susceptible to de- fifty papers covering a wide range of subjects was structive agents than when dry and in a rest- presented. The sessions were presided over by the ing stage.
president, Professor W. B. Scott and by vice-presi. The effect of the presoak method of seed
dents G. E. Hale, H. L. Carson and A. A. Noyes. treatment with chemical disinfectants is, there
Two important features were a symposium on fore, two-fold—first, seed injury is prevented
the solar eclipse of June 8, 1918, and one on chem
ical warfare. In the former special attention was by the dilution of the disinfectant as it enters the presaturated seed tissues; second, the effi
given to photographs and their interpretation of
the prominences and the coronal arches and ciency of the disinfectant on the pathogen is
streamers obtained by members of the several exincreased. In view of the fact that nine dif
peditions sent from the Lick, the Mount Wilson, ferent varieties of wheat, also oats, barley and
the Lowell, the Sproul and the Yerkes observatories. maize, have been treated by this method, using both formalin and copper sulfate, disinfectants
PROGRAM of widely different chemical nature, in strong so- Thursday Afternoon, April 24, 2 o'clock lutions (formalin 1:320 and copper sulfate 1:80)
William B. Scott, D.Sc., LL.D., president, in the without appreciable injury to germination, it
chair appears probable that the same physiological The cosmic force, radio-action: MONROE B. SNYDER, principles here utilized can be applied to other director of the Philadelphia Observatory. chemical disinfectants and to the treatment of The conservation of the natural monuments (illusother seed-transmitted diseases amenable to trated): JOHN M. CLARKE, director of depart