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APPARATUS FOR THE MANUFACTURE

OF LIPOVACCINES

AS USED IN THE ARMY MEDICAL SCHOOL IN THE PREPARATION OF

Typhoid-Paratyphoid (A and B) and Pneumococcus (Types I, II and III)
And for experimental work on the Lipovaccines Meningococcus (Normal and Para),

Dysentery (Shiga, Flexner and Y), Cholera and Plague

See Whitmore, Fennel and Petersen, “An Experimental Investigation of Lipovaccines," "The Journal of the American Medical Association, February 16, 1918, Vol. 70, pp. 427-431, Whitmore and Fennel, March 30, 1918, Vol. 70, pp. 902-904, and Whitmore, “Lipovaccines with Special Reference to Public Health Work,” read at the December, 1914, meeting of the American Public Health Association.

of

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Consider a few illustrations. At one of the cantonments, within a few months' time, over 30,000 men were given a uniform standard intelligence-test and, as a dircet result of it, 600 men who would have been a detriment and even

a positive danger to their fellow soldiers were sent away before time and money were wasted on their military education.

Certain very important institutions were receiving candidates a large percentage of whom were discarded, with little but discouragement and envy to show in return for the expense of their time and the government's money. Yet these candidates were chosen by a system which already represented the acme of com

sense administered by extremely able

A scientific study of some five hundred cases showed where much of the trouble lay and provided a remedy.

Under the pressure of the war the regular army scheme for measuring the qualifications and efficiency of its officers could not be operated. Nor would it have been suitable for the two hundred thousand officers taken from civil life with only a few months of military training. A workable record and rating plan was prepared by an expert in applied psychol

1 Address of the vice-president and chairman of Section H, Anthropology and Psychology, Baltimore, December, 1918.

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ogy, tested carefully in certain camps, and put into force throughout the army.

At one of the largest naval radio schools the candidates were admitted in part through a series of tests devised for the purpose by one man of science, and their instruction was directed by methods devised by another.

In one of the large munition factories, a number of psychologists were kept constantly at work studying the means of selecting the right individuals as employees and finding the optimum conditions for their work.

Multiply such cases as these many many times; add to them the scientific personnel work done by physiologists and medical men; add further that done by the many modern business men whose work is so based on principles and verified by experiment that we should gladly claim them as fellow scientists —and the total would probably be the greatest increase in scientific control over the management of men ever made in any year in any country.

Until the war-history of the scientific activities of the National Research Council, the various emergency boards and bureaus, and the military organizations themselves is written, nobody will be able to describe or assess this work as a whole or the particular share of it due to applied psychology. I regret also that circumstances have prevented me from speaking, as I had hoped to do, from even a partial study of the records and reports available in manuscript in Washington and elsewhere. I can speak only in a very informal way in reminiscence of the activities seen, or shared, during these eighteen months.

Scientific personnel work has followed two main lines which we may call mass work and analytic work. These of course shade into each other and almost always cooperate, but the distinction will be helpful, at least for presentation.

of the American Psychological Association, about seventeen hundred thousand soldiers were given a standard examination for intelligence, so devised that a small organization of examiners and clerical helpers could test and report on five hundred or more individuals a day. Within a day or two after a train-load of recruits reached a camp, it was possible for the camp psychologist to give substantial aid in such matters as:

1. The discovery of men whose superior intelligence suggests their consideration for advance. ment, for example, posts as non-commissioned officers.

2. The discovery of men whose low grade of intelligence renders them either a burden or a menace to the service.

3. The selection and assignment to Development Battalions of men who are so inferior mentally, that they are suited only for special work.

4. The prevention of undesirable differences of mental strength between different regiments or companies.

5. The early recognition of the mentally slow as contrasted with the stubborn or disobedient.2

The history of this work in its early stages has been related by Yerkes, and its later development will doubtless be made public. Amongst the many important contributions to knowledge of the significance of such a test, I quote one from the preliminary report recently issued.

The median scores for recruits from different civil occupations are in summarized form as follows:

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55 to 59

60 to 64 General carpenter

General machinist
Painter

Lathe hand
Heavy truck chauffeur General blacksmith
Horse trainer

Brakeman
Baker

Locomotive fireman Cook

Auto chauffeur Concrete or cement Telegraph and telephone worker

lineman Mine drill runner

Butcher 2 From "Army Mental Tests."

As a result of the prompt, energetic and patient labors of Yerkes and his associates of the psychology committee of the National Research Council, and of the subcommittee

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man

Bricklayer
Bridge carpenter

to have a real basis in fact; and the manageCobbler

Railroad conductor
Caterer
Railroad shop mechanic

ment of business concerns will tend to fall Locomotive engineer into the hands of men trained in the office 65 to 69

and salesroom rather than in the shop. In

70 to 74 Laundryman Truckmaster

proportion as this representative of our standPlumber Farrier and veterinarian

ard tests of intelligence is specialized, overAuto repairman General pipe-fitter

75 to 79

weighting ability to think with words and Auto engine mechanic Receiving clerk

symbols in comparison with ability to think Auto assembler

Shipping clerk
General mechanic
Stock keeper

with materials and mechanisms, our whole Tool and gauge maker

procedure in measuring intelligence requires Stock checker

80 to 84

a critical review; and probably the common Detective and policeman General electrician Tool-room expert Telegrapher

view of intelligence requires reconstruction. Ship carpenter Band musician

No less significant is the variability within Gunsmith

Concrete construction Marine engine man

foreman

each occupational group. Taking the measHand riveter

urements as they stand, the 75 percentile unTelephone operator

skilled laborer is up to the level of the median 85 to 89

90 to 94

general mechanic, tool-room expert, or autoPhotographer Railroad clerk

mobile mechanic, and up to the level of the 95 to 99

25 percentile mechanical engineer. The 75

100 to 104 General clerk Bookkeeper

percentile railroad clerk is at the level of the Filing clerk

average accountant or civil engineer. The 75 105 to 109

110 to 119

percentile receiving or shipping cleark is at the Mechanical engineer Mechanical draughts- level of the 25 percentile physician. This

variability would be reduced by longer and 115 to 119

120 to 125

repeated tests, but, unless the test as given Stenographer

Y. M. C. A, secretaries Typist

has a very large probable error, it would still Medical officers Accountant

be enormous. It would still imply that there Civil engineer

were in the occupations supposed to demand 125 and over

a high minimum standard of intelligence, a Army chaplains

very large number of dull men; and in the Engineer officers

occupations supposed to give little opportunit This table shows conclusively that in the for the use of intellect, a very large number sort of ability measured by the test (1) skilled of gifted men and consequently a large unmechanics and tradesmen, men who work with used surplus of intellect. Further informatools, are in general very closely alike and very tion concerning the exact nature of the abililow-near the level of the unskilled laborer; ties of which the test is symptomatic is evi(2) clerical workers are in general very high- dently important here. near the level of professional men. Either As one considers the use of intelligence the clerical worker is a man of much greater tests in the army, the question at once arises, general intelligence than the blacksmith, car- “ If for the sake of war penter, locomotive engineer, machinist, tool roughly the intelligence of a third of a million maker, gunsmith or assembler; or the ability soldiers a month, and find it profitable to do measured by the test is very much specialized; so, can we not each year measure the intellior both of these statements are true in a more gence of every child coming ten years of age, moderate form. The matter is one of great and will not that be still more profitable?” importance. In proportion as it is true that A more extended test such as will place an inthe more intelligent men seek clerical work dividual on the scale for intellect for his age rather than work in skilled trades, an with an average error of not over 0.2 the sentially invidious class distinction will tend mean square deviation for his age, would

we

can

measure

es

doubtless be desirable. A more varied test viewing recruits, recording their abilities and which will prophesy ability to work with training, and using these facts in placing and things and human beings as well as ideas transferring men. and symbols would doubtless be desirable. A modern army is specialized into over two Series of tests that could be made public with- hundred occupations each as essential in its out serious injury from deliberate preparation way to success in war as is the combat work of by tutors would also be desirable, and prob- infantrymen, nachine gunners or signallers. ably necessary. However, even with these An army fights with a force of specialists more rigorous requirements, the expense for ranging from artists to automatic-screw operan annual nation-wide inventory of the in- ator, bacteriologist to butcher, cargador to telligence of the ten-year-old cross section cupola tender, detective to dog trainer. The would not equal the cost of the war to Amer- Committee on Classification of Personnel had ica alone for five hours.,

to fill such orders for man power as: The results of such a census of intellect, One hundred and five artists, scene painters, especially if repeated at 14, 18, 22, would give architects, etc., for camouflage work for the superintendents of schools, commissioners of Engineer Corps. charity, mayors of cities and governors of

Three thousand typists, needed at once. states facts which they really need every day

Forty-five enlisted men capable of leadership in their business.

who are competent in the distribution and A second main line of scientific work for handling of oils and gasolines, fit to receive large groups of soldiers was carried on by the commissions in the Quartermaster Corps. Committee on Classification of Personnel in

Professors of mathematics equipped to the Army under the leadership of Walter Dill

teach in the Field Artillery schools. Scott.

Meteorologists and physicists able to learn As a result of work done by him for the quickly to make meteorological observations army in the first months of the war there was

and predictions. constituted in August of 1917 a Civilian Com

Six hundred chauffeurs who speak French. mittee of seven psychologists and three ex

Electric crane operators. perts in the selection of men for employment. In August, 1918, nearly four hundred such This committee worked first under the juris

requisitions calling for over two hundred thoudiction of the Adjutant General and later

sand men were filled. They had to be filled under the General Staff. This committee

promptly in almost every case, and each had to urged, and was soon entrusted with, the work

be filled so as to leave the best possible maof planning and carrying out an inventory of

terial to fill every other requisition. the man power of the National Army and es

From one point of view this work was simply tablishing Personnel units in each of the six

that of an enormous and glorified employment teen cantonments. By these means each man's

agency; and the scientists and business men special abilities could be considered so that the engaged in it would be content if they had right man would be put in the right place.

done nothing more than conduct an efficient These personnel units were found to be of agency for supplying to the army the skill it direct practical service, were soon established needed, when and where it needed it. From in the National Guard as well as in the Na- another point of view the work was a continutional Army, and were later extended to the ous study of human nature and application of Staff Corps and to the Students' Army Train- scientific management. ing Corps. Schools were established to train In connection with the inventory of each officers in the committee's system of inter- man's abilities, tests to measure proficiency in

3 Just before the close of the war, the members each of about a hundred trades were devised, of the committee and the group of associates whom in the eight months from March, 1918. By they had organized were being commissioned. the end of October these tests were in regular

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