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Plan No. 3.-To form a scientific and tech- gress by usual methods of readjustment, and

nical branch of Federal Employees Union that this limit can only be raised by research No. 2. (Union No. 2 is the main Wash- and the utilization of the results of research ington section of the National Federation in industry, the cause of science will be placed of Federal Employees, and has 21,000 in a position which we can not now anticipate. members.)

3. The necessity of contact with a body Plan No. 1 received very little support, but having the confidence of, and influence with, there was a spirited discussion between the those with whom decisions rest. advocates of plans 2 and 3, the point at issue 4. The complete autonomy enjoyed by the being the advisability of organizing as a Federal Employees Union in its affiliation branch of the Federal Employees Union, with the American Federation of Labor, and which is affiliated with the American Federa- by the Scientific and Technical Branch in its tion of Labor. Plan 3 was adopted by a sub- affiliation with the former. stantial majority, although there was a con- 5. The complete freedom from any compulsiderable minority composed of those favor- sion upon the individual, the constitution ing either Plan 1, or Plan 2, together with a pledging all its members not to strike, or supsmall number favoring a separate organiza- port any strike against the government. tion directly affiliated with the American Fed- 6. The methods and the record of the Federation of Labor.

eral Employees Union. There has been cordial In order that work might be started without cooperation with legislative and administrawaiting to perfect a permanent organization, tive officials in collating and presenting rea temporary organization was formed com- liable data, which has produced very concrete posed of a general interim committee, con- results without producing friction or resentsisting of a chairman, a secretary, and repre- ment. For half a century the status of the sentatives from the bureaus, one for each government employees had, on the whole, not twenty members. The organization is already improved, or had even grown worse. In three functioning, while the permanent organization years of organization four important advances is being worked out.

have been made: the enactment of a compenThe considerations which lead to the organi- sation law; the presidential veto of a bill inzation of scientific and technical employees of creasing hours of service without an increase the government into a branch of the Federal in pay; a flat increase of $120 (next year Employees Union may be summarized as $240) for all employees receiving $2,500 or follows:

less per year; and the formation of the Re1. The belief that science can never play its classification Commission. real rôle in the development of our national' 7. The urgency of the reclassification problife until the great body of workers of the lem, which made it doubtful whether a new nation has a sympathetic understanding of the independent organization could be formed in significance of research, and that such an time to be effective, while here was at hand a understanding can be brought about only by going, experienced organization with mathe scientific workers joining hands with the chinery and funds available, and already other workers of the nation,

working in close cooperation with, and enjoy. 2. Specifically, the belief that the affiliation ing the complete confidence of, the commiswill greatly accelerate a general understand- sion; and this organization already numbered ing of the economic relation between scientific among its members more than six hundred of research and the problem of a higher na- the scientific workers, among them many of tional standard of living; and that, when the the ablest and best known men in the scientific workers generally, fully realize that there is service. a limit beyond which the standard of living The Reclassification Commission is to recof the average of the population can not pro

ommend a plan of classification and compensation to Congress by January, 1920. The Sir C. F. Close, Sir Horáce Darwin, Sir F. W. members of the Commission are Senators Dyson, Dr. E. H. Griffiths, Sir T. H. Holdich, Jones (chairman), Henderson and Spencer, Sir Joseph Larmor, Col. H. G. Lyons, Proand former Representatives Keating (secre- fessor Newall, Sir Charles Parsons, Sir Napier tary), Cooper and Hamlin. The commission Shaw, Sir J. J. Thomson and Professor H. H. is doing the work through central committees Turner, has been formed for the purpose of on which the commission, the administrative making an appeal for the creation and endowofficers and the employees (through their or- ment of a geophysical institute at Cambridge. ganizations) are represented. Thus it is ex- The question of the establishment of an instipected that misunderstandings will be avoided tute of this character has been under consideror removed as they arise, and that the com- ation by the British Association for the last pleted work may receive the support of all the three years. A large and representative cominterests concerned.

mittee reported unanimously in favor of the The work of this commission seems bound to project, which was then considered by the Conhave a profound influence on the scientific joint Board of Scientific Societies. This services of the government for a decade or Board also reported that there was a real need more, no less from the point of view of the for such an institute. The chief reasons government than from that of the individual. which have been put forward on behalf of the Its influence will not stop with the govern- scheme are: (1) Geodetic work must form the ment service, but will extend indirectly to basis and control of all the state surveys of practically all scientific laboratories, college. the empire, on which about a million sterling university, industrial, state, and municipal. was spent annually before the war.

(2) A By cooperating, by furnishing data from sim- geophysical institute could render great assistilar studies that may have been made in other ance in connection with the particular group organizations, men in such laboratories can of geodetic problems now of most practical in. do their colleagues in the federal departments terest in the United Kingdom, namely those a very real service, and a service to the cause associated with leveling, mean sea-level, and of science and to the fraternity as well. Gen- vertical movements of the crust of the earth. eral arguments will not be useful. What is (3) Such an institute is greatly needed to needed is comparative data, such for example assist in the study of the tides and in attackas salary studies made by universities, or sta- ing the great problems which must be solved tistical studies of the investment equivalent if tidal prediction is to advance beyond of a university training, the accuracy of which present elementary and fragmentary state. can be vouched for. The commission is under- (4) There is at present no provision for the taking the problem in the same spirit that is collection and critical discussion of the geonecessary in an investigation in chemistry or detic work which is being done within the in biology

Empire, or for its comparison with the work R. H. TRUE, Chairman, of other countries. There is no institution Bureau of Plant Industry, available for research work or higher training P. G. AGNEW, Secretary, in geodesy. There is no British institution

Bureau of Standards which can be referred to for the latest techWASHINGTON,

nical data and methods, and until the outMay 12, 1919

break of the war it was the custom of many SCIENTIFIC EVENTS

British surveys (notably the survey of India),

when confronted with geodetic problems, to A BRITISH GEODETIC AND GEODYNAMIC INSTITUTE

refer to the Geodetic Institute at Potsdam. A COMMITTEE, consisting of Dr. Shipley (the This was not even then a very satisfactory arVice-Chancellor), Dr. H. K. Anderson, Col. rangement, and now a radical change is in-. 1 From Nature.

evitable.

oceano

Discussion as to where the institute could seven years' time would be absorbing £1,100 most suitably be established has led to the per annum. selection of Cambridge, for it is essential that In the course of his replies to questions, Mr. an institute of geodesy and geodynamics Field said: The Board of Science and Indusshould be associated with a great school of try, recommended by the New Zealand Instimathematics and physics, and it is only in tute and strongly backed by the National Effconnection with a great Imperial university ciency Board, would have a statutory grant and that that width and freshness of outlook are therefore be free from ministerial interference. to be sought which are essential to a progress- This proposed board might assist the Cawthron ive and practical science. The committee has Institute with grants and subsidies in those evidence that an institute at Cambridge would cases in which large scale experiments of an be cordially welcomed by the national survey expensive type had to be undertaken. The idea departments, both terrestrial and

of the Board of Science and Industry was to graphic.

subsidize liberally all research work in New It is estimated that an endowment of £50,000 Zealand, whether carried out in government will be necessary if the proposed institute is laboratories, university colleges, research insatisfactorily to perform the double task of stitutes, or by private individuals. The money research and education, but it is hoped that if would be paid by direct grants or in the form half that sum were contributed by private of fellowships or scholarships to be held at benefactions the remainder would be forth- specified institutions for special purposes. As coming from national funds. An essential to the financial position of the Cawthron Instipart of the scheme would be the foundation tute, the cash invested amounted to £213,000, of a university professorship of geodynamics besides which there is land at Annesbrook to be held by the director of the institute. valued at £5,075, and observatory lands valued To place this professorship in line with other at £500. The trustees aim at keeping the capichairs recently endowed by private benefac- tal at £200,000, and paying for buildings, tions and usually associated with the names equipment, etc., from income. It is proposed of the donors or founded as memorials of na- to appoint at first a director, a chemist, and tional sacrifice in the great war, a sum of then a plant pathologist and an orchardist, £20,000 (which is included in the £50,000 and then increase in the direction that occamentioned above) would be required. It is sion demands. certain that all who have to do with our

When the work of the institute is well under shipping interests or with aerial navigation way great help can be given to technical rural would ultimately profit from the establish- education in the Nelson district by means of ment of such an institute.

lectures, demonstrations and scientific advice.

Courses of lectures could be arranged not only THE CAWTHRON INSTITUTE

in Nelson, but also in other centers. Practical A NEW ZEALAND correspondent sends infor- demonstrations would naturally be made on the mation to the effect that before the Parlia- experimental grounds owned or controlled by mentary Committee of Industries at Nelson re- the Cawthron Institute in different parts of cently Mr. T. A. H. Field, M.P., one of the the district. As fresh industries take root in trustees of the Cawthron Institute, spoke con- the district, it will be a natural function of cerning the proposals of the trustees. He said the institute to help in the establishment and that during the war the trustees had been able to foster the growth of these industries by to do very little, but in that period they had in- carrying out investigations that will assist in creased the income of the institute to £11,000 their vigorous development. A sum of £12,000 per nnum, which would be spent in research to £15,000 should cover the cost of buildings .work. The trustees had also initiated certain and equipment. It is proposed to have a large scholarships for scientific training which in and carefully selected library, which is one of

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the first needs of a research institute. Other- There are more than thirty of these ceremowise a worker may spend weeks, months, or nial hymns. In addition he learned more than even years, in arriving at the solution of a 100 folk-songs, which will be recorded. All problem which has already been solved by some of these will also be recorded on the phonoother worker, or which with proper library fa- graph. cilities could be solved in a few days. This Mr. Shotridge says that his people are so library will be at the service of all research rapidly acquiring civilized customs and manworkers in New Zealand. It is also proposed ners that before long there will be left none to maintain the most friendly relationship to hand down the ancient culture. He conwith the Departments of Agriculture, Educa- siders himself fortunate to have been able to tion and Mines, so that the work of the insti- find enough old people in his tribe to make tute and of the government departments the records complete. should be complementary to each other, having The specimens he brought back are in many for their ultimate objects the welfare and ad- instances unique and some were given because vancement of the Dominion and of the empire. the medicine men and chiefs foresee the exThe late Mr. Cawthron was very much inter- tinction of native culture and want the relics ested in the establishment of a solar observa- preserved. The collections preceded Mr. Shottory in Nelson, whose climate is particularly ridge, and most of them are now on exhibition suited for this purpose.

at the University Museum. Mr. Shotridge

brought back a bride from his own tribe, who ANTHROPOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS

will assist her husband in his work. ALASKA THE Pennsylvania Gazette reports that

A DEPARTMENT OF FOREST RECREATION OF Chief Louis Shotridge, of the Chilkat of the

THE NEW YORK STATE COLLEGE Tliknit Indians of Southwestern Alaska, long

OF FORESTRY a member of the staff of the University Mu- A NEW department, that of Forest Recreaseum, has returned from four years' explor- tion, has just been established at the New York ations among his own people. In that time he State College of Forestry, Syracuse Universecured many hundreds of unique ethnological sity. This department will assist in the develspecimens for the museum, having spent most opment of the educational work of the college, of his time collecting and writing down in both along investigational and instructional the native language the manners, customs, lines, in the proper uses of forest areas for pubtraditions and religious rites of the various' lic recreation purposes. The establishment of tribes. It is believed that Mr. Shotridge is this department is in line with the endeavor of the first trained anthropologist who has ever the college to make its work of real service to done work of this sort among the American the people of the state and to increase the Indians using the native tongue. Chief Shot- right use of forests and forest lands. This is ridge took all his notes in the Chikat lan- the first department of forest recreation to be guage and will now spend the coming months established in a school or college in this counin reducing them to English and making ex- try. planatory notes, which will form unique vol- With the great Adirondack and Catskill Forumes in the history of our aborigines.

est Reserves, Palisades Inter-state Park, LetchMr. Shotridge took along a phonograph to worth Park and some thirty other public forest record folk songs and especially the ceremo- reservations, the whole totaling nearly two milnial chants which accompany every great lions acres, New York state has unique forest demonstration of the tribe. Unfortunately, resources capable of securing to its millions of the guttural sounds did not record well, so he people great public good in the way of recreawas obliged to commit all these songs to tional uses. Just as playgrounds are being esmemory. They will be taken down at once in tablished in villages and cities throughout the ordinary musical notation by an expert. country where play may be organized and prop

erly directed, so the forest of this and other logical chemistry at University College, Lonstates must be studied and developed that they don. may be more effective playgrounds for the

M. FORNEAU, head of the chemical division of people of the state.

the Pasteur Institute, has been elected a memThis new department of forest recreation in

ber of the Paris Academy of Medicine in the the college of forestry will be in charge of Pro

section of pharmacy. fessor Henry R. Francis, who has made a specialty of this line of work and who during the

The seventy-second annual meeting of the past five years has been carrying on landscape Paleontographical Society was held on April past five years has been carrying on landscape 25. Mr. Henry Dewey, Dr. F. L. Kitchin, Mr. extension work both in New York and Massa

W. P. D. Stebbing and Mr. Henry Woods chusetts. During the coming summer Pro

were elected new members of council. Dr. fessor Francis will begin systematic studies of forest and park areas in New York to prepare

Henry Woodward, Mr. Robert S. Herries and

Dr. A. Smith Woodward were reelected presibulletins for recreational development, and late

dent, treasurer and secretary, respectively. in the season will make a trip through the National Forests and National Parks of the west The British list of New Year honors, the to see what has already been done by the na- publication of which has been delayed by cirtional government and by the western states in cumstances arising out of the armistice, was developing the recreational possibilities of issued on April 27. Nature selects the followforest lands.

ing names of workers in scientific fields:

Baronet: Dr. Norman Moore, president of the SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS

Royal College of Physicians. Knights: Mr. R. PROFESSOR EDWARD S. MORSE has been re- T. Blomfield, past president of the Royal Inelected president of the Boston Society of Nat- stitute of British Architects; Lieutenant-Colural History.

onel J. M. Cotterill, C.M.G., consulting and THE Edison Medal for meritorious achieve

late acting surgeon, Edinburgh Royal Infirmment in electrical science or electrical engi

ary, and lecturer in clinical surgery, Edinneering, has been awarded to Benjamin G. burgh School of Medicine; Professor Israel GolLamme, of the Westinghouse Electric and Man

lancz, secretary of the British Academy since ufacturing Company, and was presented to him

its foundation; Professor R. A. Gregory, chairat the annual meeting of the American Insti

man of the organizing committee, British Scitute of Electrical Engineers. The presentation

entific Products Exhibition; Mr. H. J. Hall, was made by William B. Jackson, vice-presi- organizer under the Ministry of Munitions of dent of the institute.

the section dealing with the production of fer

tilizers; Dr. Edward Malins; Mr. J. H. Oakley, WILLIAM D. HURD, director of the extension

president of the Surveyors' Institution; Proservice of the Massachusetts College and Sta

fessor W. Ridgway, professor of archeology, tion since its establishment in 1909, has re

University of Cambridge; Dr. C. S. Tomes, signed, his resignation to take effect about June.

F.R.S., and Dr. T. J. Verrall, chairman of the 1, to accept a position with the National Fer

Central Medical War Committee. tilizer Association with headquarters in the middle west.

The British Medical Journal writes: “ The

Council of the British Medical Association CAPTAIN P. E. LANDOLT, of the Nitrate Di

has asked the president, Sir Clifford Allbutt, vision, Army Ordnance, has resigned from the K.C.B., F.R.S., to accept a portrait of himservice and has returned to his work as chem

self as a gift from members of the medical ical engineer with the Research Corporation at profession, and he has consented to give sitNew York City.

tings for the purpose to an artist of eminence. PROFESSOR VAUGHAN HARLEY, owing to ill Sir Clifford Allbutt has been president of the health, has resigned from the chair of patho- association since August, 1914, and has on

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