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cently spent three weeks studying evidences of school of chemistry have been merged in one. paleopathology in the principal paleontological Its affairs will be managed by a committee of museums of the eastern cities. The result is the chemical faculty. The following new apa number of observations which it is hoped pointments are announced: Dr. Graham Edwill be of assistance in an understanding of gar, of the National Research Council, with ancient diseases. It was found, for instance, the rank of professor, and Mr. J. H. Yoe, of that the coalescence of the vertebræ of the

the Chemical Warfare Service, with the rank huge dinosaurs is caused by the lesions of

of adjunct professor. The staff of assistants Spondylitis deformans, a common result of

has been enlarged considerably. Five new redisease among Pleistocene vertebrates, in the

search fellowships have been established by ancient Egyptians and in modern man, and

the board of visitors. Applications for these not previously known to occur before the Mio

should be filed with Dr. George L. Carter, cene. A large, fractured humerus of a Cretaceous dinosaur presents an interesting sub

secretary of the chemical faculty. periosteal abscess, which is of considerable in- PROFESSOR EDWARD C. SCHNEIDER (Yale, terest in connection with the study of com- '01), of Colorado College, has been elected minuted fractures of limb bones in certain vic- head of the department of biology at Westims of the recent war.

leyan University. Miss Maud MARGARET GIBSON has placed in

DR. M. G. GABA, of Cornell University, has the hands of the Royal Society of Medicine a

been appointed associate professor of mathesum of money sufficient to provide a scholar

matics at the University of Nebraska. ship of the yearly value of about £250, in memory of her father, the late Mr. William COLONEL WILLIAM DARRACH has been ap Gibson of Melbourne, Australia. The scholar: pointed dean of the College of Physicians and ship will be awarded from time to time to Surgeons by the trustees of Columbia Uniqualified medical women who are subjects of versity. He succeeds Dr. Samuel W. Lamthe British Empire. It is tenable for a period bert, whose resignation takes effect on July 1. of two years, but may in special circumstances Appointments and promotions at the college be extended to a third year.

are announced as follows: William E. Studdi

ford, M.D., professor of obstetrics and gyneUNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

cology, to succeed the late Dr. Edwin B. NEWS

Cragin; Allen O. Whipple, M.D., now asTHE trustees of Wesleyan University have sociate in surgery, to be assistant professor decided to start a campaign to secure an addi- of pathology; Benjamin P. Farrell, instructor tional endowment of $2,000,000 for the uni

in orthopedic surgery, to be assistant proversity. The trustees have voted to make sub

fessor in the same branch; Louis Cassamajor, stantial increases in salaries of members of

associate professor of neurology, to be prothe faculty.

fessor of neurology; Oliver S. Strong, Ph.D., QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY, Kingston, Ontario, re- assistant professor of neurology, to be assoports that an additional endowment of $1,000,

ciate professor of neurology. 000 has been received for the general purposes of the university. It is proposed that

DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE several more full-time professors will be secured and the departments of physiology, bac

AN IMMUNE VARIETY OF SUGAR CANE teriology and public health will be developed. SEVERAL years ago a serious disease of sugar A fund of $200,000 is also available to be ex- cane appeared in Porto Rico. Owing to cerpended in the reconstruction of the hospital. tain characters exhibited by this disease it

At the University of Virginia, the school of was designated as the mottling disease of analytical and industrial chemistry and the sugar cane (sometimes called mosaic). It may be identical with the yellow stripe disease pre- though not immune, with the exception of the valent in Java and some other cane countries. one variety Kavangire which appears to be At the request of the Porto Rican authorities entirely immune. In three or four of the the U. S. Department of Agriculture entered least infected kinds close observation is necinto cooperation with the insular and federal

essary to detect the disease, the only evidence stations on the island, and Professor F. S. being very faint "watered silk" discolorations. Earle, of the Office of Sugar-Plant Investi- Professor Earle has observed the Kavangire gations, Bureau of Plant Industry, was de- fully matured on the federal station at tailed to take up the cooperative work in Porto Mayaguez and in other localities, and in all Rico in August, 1918.

of the localities in Porto Rico where it is Among other lines of investigation Pro- growing it is entirely free from the mottling fessor Earle studied very closely the sugar disease whether the plants are young shoots cane varieties growing in Porto Rico. He or mature canes. noted that among about twenty varieties grow- The Kavangire cane is tall-growing and ing at the federal station at Mayaguez there very slender, while the Porto Rican planter was one Japanese variety (Kavangire) showed prefers a thick cane, because it appears to be no sign of the mottling disease, while all the a better yielder and is handled at less exother varieties there were more or less seri- pense. However, the yield of the Kavangire ously affected. In order to carry this study under some conditions at least compares favorfurther Professor Earle, through the kind co- ably with other varieties, and very greatly exoperation of Russell & Co., inaugurated an ex- ceeding them in some cases. Director May periment with ninety varieties of cane on reports a yield at the rate of 70 tons per acre their Santa Rita Estate. These varieties were on the Mayaguez plot. No analyses of the planted and grown under the personal super- Kavangire variety, as grown in Porto Rico, vision of Russell & Co.'s cane planting expert, are available, but according to some reports Mr. H. Bourne of Barbados. Single rows of

from other countries where it is grown it cane were planted of the varieties to be tested, varies from 14.38 per cent. sucrose to 16.85 and

every third row was planted with diseased per cent. sucrose, while its purity coefficient seed of the Rayada variety (ribbon cane). In varies from 84.6 to 89.67. this way each variety was uniformly and com- The Kavangire cane was imported into pletely exposed to the infection.

Porto Rico from the Argentine a few years The first planting of the ninety varieties was ago by Mr. May, director of the Federal Exmade on October 1, 1918. Two and one half periment Station at Mayaguez. In Argentine months later Mr. Bourne reported that all of it has been planted quite largely on a comthe varieties except the Kavangire showed the mercial scale indicating that it is satisfactory mottling disease, the infection running from from the standpoint of sugar production. It 9 per cent. to 96 per cent. This variety has requires a long season for maturity, and for remained free from disease to date, March, this reason has not been recommended for 1919, and shows every indication thus far of general planting in Argentine. The sugar per being immune to the mottling disease.

acre is the crucial test, and in this respect the On January 29 of this year Professor Earle Kavangire generally stands near the top, so made a careful study of the experiment and far as available records indicate. found about half of the other varieties in this After reviewing the available literature in experiment showing an infection of fully 100 regard to Kavangire Professor Earle raises per cent., and in only two cases was it as low the practical question as to whether or not as 50 per cent. The degree of infection, how. Kavangire can be successfully used for genever, was decidedly marked in different va- eral planting in Porto Rico. If it can and it rieties, a few of them showing the disease but retains its immune characteristic the question slightly, indicating that they are resistant of combating the mottling disease is solved.


This question of the practicability of using

SCIENTIFIC BOOKS the Kavangire is now under consideration by

Professor Earle and his co-workers in Porto
Rico, and at the same time further observa-

AMONG the interesting papers published in tions will be made upon the immunity of this

Studies in the History and Method of Scivariety to the mottling disease. Unfortunately,

ence," edited by Charles Singer, and printed the available supply of plant cane of Kavan

in Oxford by the Clarendon Press, 1917, gire in Porto Rico is limited. It will take a

is an important contribution of fundamental number of years to propagate enough of this

interest to students of the history of anatomy. variety to make it available for general plant

The entire series of essays has been previously ing. In the meantime its adaptability to the

reviewed by Dr. Charles Dana? and we may Porto Rican climatic and labor conditions

confine our attention to Dr. Singer's “Study will be determined. It appears to be a strong

in Early Renaissance Anatomy," which ocratooner and to have considerable resistance cupies 84 pages of the book. to root disease, borer and stem rot. If these

This study is subdivided : indications prove true Kavangire should en

I. Anatomy in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth able the grower to keep his fields in profitable

Centuries. production longer without replanting than is II. Bolognese Works on Anatomy. possible with the varieties now in general use. III. Hieronymo Manfredi, Professor at Bologna, This will reduce the cost of production, even

1463–93. though the habit of growth and quality of the IV. The Manuscript Anatomy of Manfredi. cane should make it a somewhat more

V. Translation of selected Passages from the

Anothomia, with Commentary. pensive variety to handle and to mill.

(a) The Brain, Cranial Nerves, etc. C. 0. TOWNSEND


(c) The Heart.

Italian Text of the Anothomia.
TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: In regard to the

There is little that is new in the first two article on “ Poison Gases " by Major West, in

sections, although there is much interesting your issue of May 2, 1919, the statement on

material, accompanied by a wealth of bibliop. 415 that at the Hague Conference of 1899

graphic details which will save the worker “the governments represented—and all the

in anatomical history much time and labor. warring powers of the present great conflict

The discussion is interesting and instructive; were represented-pledged themselves not to

the illustrations, which are well reproduced, use any projectiles whose only object was to

having been chosen from the works of such give out suffocating or poisonous gases” is

early writers as Henri de Mondeville (1314), not correct. Twenty-six nations voted on the Bartholomæus Anglicus (1482), Guy de Chauquestion, all but two being in the affirmative. liac (1430 ?), Mondina (1493), Ketham (1495) The dissenting two were Great Britain and and many other writers. Many of these illusthe United States. At the conference of 1907, trations have been previously given by Locy, Great Britain gave way and signed, but the Sudhoff,3 Choulant4 and others. United States refused. The reasons for the

1 Annals of Medical History, I., no. 4, 1917 action of the United States are set forth

(issued February, 1919). clearly and, in my opinion, unanswerably by

2" Anatomical Illustrations before Vesalius," Admiral Mahan, the leader of the U. S. dele

Jour. Morphol., 1911, XXII., no. 4. gation, in a formal statement that he made on

3 "Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Anatomie im the occasion.

Mittelalter,” Leipzig, 1908. HENRY LEFFMANN 4" Geschichte der anatomischen Abbildungen," PHILADELPHIA, PA.

Leipzig, 1852.

He refers in an interesting way to the made by A. Mildred Westland, are interesting tangled triangle between Leonardo da Vinci, and instructive. Manfredi's discussion of the Vesalius and Marc Antonio della Torre (1473- scalp, skull and meninges reads remarkably 1506) which has been discussed extensively like a modern text-book of anatomy, the by McMurrich, Forster and others. Singer medieval terms almochatim and lauda being speaks of the projected treatise of Marcan- no worse than those of the BNA. tonio della Torre ” which was to be prepared It may be interesting to give Manfredi's in conjunction with Leonardo, giving an in- discussion of the chorioid plexus, which reteresting references to support his conclusion. calls, in a way the ideas held later by DesElsewhere he says: “Leonardo da Vinci's ... cartes and Swedenborg, concerning the pineal anatomical researches were without influence, body. and remained long unnoticed,” thus casting

To the side ... is another thing like a subterdoubt on the supposition that these illustra

ranean worm, red as blood, yet tethered by certain tions had influenced the work of Vesalius.

ligaments and nervelets. And this worm when it The short biographical sketch of Hieronymo lengthens itself closes these passages, and thus Manfredi (1430–1493) is without particular blocks the path between the first ventricle and the interest and is doubtless duplicated in all es- second. Nature has wrought it thus, so that when sentials many times in the biographical

a man wills he may cease from cogitation and sketches given in the "Biographie Médicale"

thought; and similarly when, on the other hand,

he would think and contemplate, this worm conand in the biographical dictionary of Gurlt

tracts itself again and opens these passages and and Hirsch which is largely based in the “Bio

thus frees the way between one ventricle and graphie Médicale."

another. Manfredi's anatomical views were modified by the astrological learning so prominent in

Manfredi gives the customary six cranial Bologna at that time. The matter of greatest

nerves, all that were known to the ancients. interest about his “ Anothomia ” however is

His discussion of the anatomy of the eye that it represents the breaking away from the

shows the strong influence of the Arabians old Galenic anatomy, which was based on

who were excellent ophthalmologists, while his calves, dogs and other mammals, and applied description of the heart follows closely that without question to man. Manfredi's anat

of Mondino. omy, while only a compilation, it is true, is

In the opinion of the reviewer there have yet based on a careful study of many writers.

been few studies of more fundamental im“It is in the main a rearranged and on the

portance to the study of anatomical history whole improved Mondino, but amplified by

than the present one by Dr. Singer. Sudhoff's reference to translations from Galen, Rhazes, study already referred to, the studies of Haly Abbas and Avicenna.”

Stieda, Toply and Jastrow on the “BeginPerhaps other writers were also used. It is nings of Anatomy among the ancient Chalnot an original work, not yet a piece of re

deans, Babylonians and Romans are to be search, although he had confirmed some of mentioned in this connection. Important conhis descriptions by actual dissection. How- tributions to anatomical history are difficult ever, “It is perhaps the first complete treatise to produce, since it requires great linguistic on its subject written originally in the vernac- ability, access to large collections of manuular," and represents anatomy as taught at scripts and books, and some knowledge of Bologna at the end of the fifteenth century. anatomical structure. Such a combination,

The translations of portions of the text, rare and difficult as it is, is found in the 8 G. Cervetto, “Di alcuni illustri anatomici

person of Dr. Charles Singer who is doing italiani del decimoquinto secolo," p. 46, Verona,

notable work in the advancement of knowl1842.

edge of ancient medical literature through the publications at Oxford University, and in was small, but the occurrence is deemed the pages of the Annals of Medical History. significant.

Roy L. MOODIE Caution should be used by the field worker UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS,

in interpreting probable conglomeratic strucCOLLEGE OF MEDICINE

tures in these limestones, as a cross-sectional view alone may be misleading unless the pos

sibility of fossils is constantly kept in mind. SPECIAL ARTICLES

The paper by Mr. Richard M. Fieldi on NOTES ON CERTAIN CONGLOMERATIC STRUC. these obscure structures deserves commendaTURES IN LIMESTONES IN CENTRAL

tion. His many field observations and sumPENNSYLVANIA

mary of previous literature render the work a THE following notes may be of value to

distant contribution to knowledge whether or those interested in the origin of limestone

not one agrees with his theory of origin. The conglomerates in the Nittany valley, Penn

reader is referred to this paper for a full sylvania.

treatment of the subject. HARRY N. EATON Last summer while collecting extensively from the Stonehenge and Axemann lime- SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY stones, fossiliferous members of the Beekman

MINUTES OF THE COMMITTEE ON town series, in the Bellefonte quadrangle the

POLICY OF THE AMERICAN ASSOwriter found repeated occurrences of fossils

CIATION FOR THE ADVANCEin the conglomeratic, or pseudo-conglomeratic

MENT OF SCIENCE beds. In some cases the fossils were sparingly

The Committee on Policy met on Monday, disseminated among structures prevailingly April 28, 1919, at 5 P.M., at the Cosmos Club, conglomeratic and apparently of inorganic

with Mr. Nichols in the chair, and Messrs. origin. In other instances fossil layers them

Woodward, Merriam, Humphreys, MacDougal, selves assumed a conglomeratic appearance in

Cattell, Noyes, Ward and Howard also cross-section, especially if slightly weathered.

present. It was often impossible to determine in the

On motion, Professor Dimon Kellogg, of field whether a structure, apparently conglom- Columbia, Mo., was elected to membership, eratic, owed its superficial appearance to a

made a fellow and, on nomination from the strictly inorganic origin or rather to an as

sectional committee of Section A, was elected semblage of fossils in a more or less clastic

vice-president and chairman of that section. fashion. Gradually the impression grew upon

On motion, Dr. David Jayne Hill, was the observer that fossils worked over mechan

elected to membership, made a fellow and, on ically in some way prior to burial formed the

nomination from the sectional committee of basis of some of the so-called limestone con

Section I, was elected vice-president and glomerates. Anent this possible method of

chairman of that section. formation the following observation is offered

On motion, Dr. C. Kenneth Leith, of Madifor what it is worth.

son, having been nominated by the sectional Several years ago the writer had occasion

committee of Section E, was elected as viceto collect fossils from the Warrior limestone president and chairman of that section. (Buffalo Run limestone of Moore and Wal

On motion, A. S. Langsdorf, of Washingcott) of Upper Cambrian age and found one ton University, was elected as secretary of outcrop which could be interpreted as the the council in place of Dr. J. F. Abbott, reresult of the mechanical breaking up of an signed. organism. A small reef or cluster of Crypto

1A Preliminary Paper on the Origin and zoon, seen in cross-section, appeared broken

Classification of Intraformational Conglomerates or flaked off in such a manner that the

and Breccias,' Richard M. Field, Ottawa Nat. cemented rubble much resembled "edgewise' uralist, vol. 30, nos. 2-6, May-Sept., 1916, pp. conglomerate. The area on the rock surface 29-36, 47-52, 58-66.

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