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Horace Greeley Perry, A.M., Austin teaching fellow in botany.

John Felt Cole, A.B., instructor in astronomy.

McKeen Cattell, A.M., Austin teaching fellow in physiology.

Neal Tuttle, A.M., Austin teaching fellow in chemistry.


The following promotions and appointments in the scientific departments are announced:

Teorge David Birkhoff, professor of mathematics. A.B. (Harvard Univ.) 1905, A.M. (ibid.) 196, Ph.D. (Univ. of Chicago) 1907. Instructor in mathematics, 1907–09, University of Wisconsin; preceptor in mathematics, 1909–11, professor of mathematics, 1911-12, Princeton University; assistant professor of mathematics, 1912–19, Harvard University.

Cecil Kent Drinker, associate professor of applied physiology. S.B. (Haverford Coll.) 1909, M.D. (Univ. of Pennsylvania) 1913. Instructor in physiology, 1915-16, Johns Hopkins University; instructor in physiology, 1916–18, assistant professor of physiology, 1918-19, Harvard University.

Chester Laurens Dawes, assistant professor of electrical engineering. S.B. (Mass. Institute of Technology) 1909. Assistant in electrical engineering, 1911-12, instructor in electrical engineering, 1912–19, Harvard University; instructor in electrical engineering, 1916-19, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

William Caspar Graustein, assistant professor of mathematics. A.B. (Harvard Univ.) 1910, A.M. (ibid.) 1911, Ph.D. (Univ. of Bonn) 1913. Instructor in mathematics, 1913–14, 1919, Harvard University; instructor in mathematics, 1914–16, assistant professor of mathematics, 1916-19, Rice Institute, Texas.

Lincoln Ware Riddle, assistant professor of cryptogamic botany. A.B. (Harvard Univ.) 1902, A.M. (ibid.) 1905, Ph.D. (ibid.) 1906. Austin teaching fellow in botany, 1905–06, Harvard University; instructor in botany, 1906-09, associate professor of botany, 1909–18, professor of botany, 1918–19, Wellesley College.

Frederick Albert Saunders, assistant professor of physics. A.B. (Univ. of Toronto) 1895, Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins Univ.) 1899. Instructor in physics, 1899–1901, Haverford College; instructor in physics, 1901–02, associate professor of physics, 1902-05, professor of physics, 1905–14, Syracuse University; professor of physics, 1914–19, Vassar College.

Bancroft Huntington Brown, A.M., instructor in mathematics.

Edward Smith Handy, A.B., Austin teaching fellow in anthropology.

Charles Andrew Rupp, Jr., instructor in mathematics.

Arthur Bliss Seymour, S.M., assistant in the cryptogamic herbarium.

THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES At the meeting of the National Academy of Sciences, which took place last week at Washington, the following officers were elected: Home Secretary: Dr. Charles Greely Abbot, assist

ant secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Treasurer: Frederick L. Ransome, U. S. Geological

Survey. Members of the Council: Colonel John J. Carty,

American Telephone and Telegraph Company; Dr. Henry H. Donaldson, Wistar Institute of Anatomy, University of Pennsylvania, and Professor Raymond Pearl, school of hygiene and public health, The Johns Hopkins University.

Members were elected as follows: Professor Joseph Barrell, geologist, Yale Univer.

sity, Professor Gary Nathan Calkins, zoologist, Colum

bia University, Professor Herbert D. Curtis, astronomer, Lick Ob

servatory, University of California, Gano Dunn, electrical engineer, New York City, Professor Lawrence J. Henderson, biologist, Har

vard University, Professor Reid Hunt, pharmacologist, Harvard

University, Professor Treat Baldwin Johnson, chemist, Yale

University, Professor W. J. V. Osterhout, botanist, Harvard

University, Dr. Frederick A. Seares, astronomer, Mount Wil.

son Observatory, Mount Wilson, California, Professor William A. Setchell, botanist, University

of California, Major General George 0. Squier, electrical engi.

neer, chief army signal officer, Washington, D. C., Professor Augustus Trowbridge, physicist, Prince

ton University, Professor Oswald Veblen, mathematician, Prince

ton University, Professor Ernest J. Wilczynski, mathematician,

University of California, Professor Edwin Bidwell Wilson, mathematical

physicist, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

At the annual dinner of the academy, the MR. JAMES W. McGUIRE, of the Coast and Henry Draper Gold Medal was awarded to Geodetic Survey, has been appointed a memCharles Fabry, professor of physics at the Uni- ber of the U. S. Geographic Board. versity of Marseilles, France, and the Alex

Dr. W. N. BERG, captain in the Sanitary ander Agassiz Gold Medal, established

established Corps, stationed at Camp Lee, has received through funds provided by Sir John Murray, his discharge from the Army and has returned was awarded to Prince Albert of Monaco.

to the Bureau of Animal Industry. The program of the scientific sessions of the

AFTER thirty years' service as chairman of academy was printed in the issue of SCIENCE

the department of chemistry at Northwestern for last week.

University, Professor A. Van Eps Young has

retired to his farm in North Carolina as proSCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS fessor emeritus. At the annual general meeting of the Amer- Dr. H. L. CURTIS, of the Bureau of Standican Philosophical Society held on April 24, ards, has gone for a three months visit to Eu25 and 26, the following were elected to mem- ropean laboratories to obtain data on the bership: Robert Grant Aitken, Mount Hamil- progress of certain war problems. ton, Cal.; Joseph Charles Arthur, Lafayette,

MURRAY P. HOROWITZ, of the Massachusetts Ind.; Edward W. Berry, Baltimore; James

Institute of Technology, has been asked to go Henry Breasted, Chicago; Ulric Dahlgren,

to Oklahoma, by the Oklahoma Tuberculosis Princeton; William Curtis Farabee, Philadel

Association, in order to conduct health surphia; John Huston Finley, Albany, N. Y.;

veys this summer. Together with the surStephen Alfred Forbes, Urbana, Ill.; Cheva

veys which were completed last summer, the lier Jackson, Philadelphia; Dayton C. Miller,

work will represent a state-wide health survey. Cleveland; George D. Rosengarten, Philadelphia; Albert Sauveur, Cambridge, Mass.; Wil

The one hundred and thirteenth annual liam Albert Setchell, Berkeley, Cal.; Julius O.

meeting of the Medical Society of the state of

New York was held May 6 to 8, in Syracuse, Stieglitz, Chicago; Ambrose Swasey, Cleveland.

under the presidency of Dr. Thomas H. Hal

sted, Syracuse. COLONEL JOHN J. CARTY, chief engineer of the American Telegraph and Telephone Com

The Paris Academy of Medicine has elected pany, largely responsible for the communica

as national associates: Dr. Yersin, director of tions of the American army during the war,

the Pasteur Institute of Nha-Trang and Dr. has received the rank of commandant of the

Delagenière of Mans. Legion of Honor.

King Alfonso of Spain has signed a decree At the meeting of the New York Section of awarding the Great Cross of the Civilian the Society of Chemical Industry on. April 18,

Order of Alfonso XIII. to Mme Sklodowska

Curie, of the University of Paris. portraits were unveiled by Dr. Charles F. Chandler, of J. B. F. Herreshoff and E. G. At the annual meeting of the Chemical SoAcheson, Perkin Medalists of 1908 and 1910, ciety, London, held on March 27, Sir James J. respectively.

Dobbie was elected president in succession to DR. ROBERT KIRKLAND NABOURS, professor of

Sir William J. Pope. zoology and curator of the natural history mu- DR. L. A. BAUER sailed from Liverpool, seum at the Kansas State Agricultural College, April 12, for Cape Palmas, Liberia, where, aswas elected president of the Kansas Academy sisted by Lieutenant H. F. Johnston, he will of Science at its fifty-first annual meeting. make magnetic and electric observations in Dr. Bernard M. Allen, of the University of connection with the solar eclipse of May 29 Kansas, was elected vice-president, and W. next. The duration of totality will be nearly E. White, also of the university, secretary. 7 minutes at this station. Dr. Bauer expects to return to London at the end of June. Lieu- laboratory of chemical engineering at Univertenant Johnston as soon as possible after the sity College eclipse will rejoin the Carnegie, as second in

CHARLES BRINKERHOFF RICHARDS, for twentycommand. During the war he was on duty

five years Higgins professor of mechanical with the Admiralty Compass Department at

engineering at Yale University, and for the Slough, England.

last nine years emeritus professor, died on Tue Montyon prize ($500) has been awarded April 20, in his eighty-sixth year. by the Paris Academy of Sciences to Drs.

Nature records the deaths of Sir James Henri Guillemard and André Labat, of Paris, for their researches on asphyxiating gases.

MacKenzie Davidson, the distinguished oph

thalmic surgeon and radiologist, and of Dr. The Adams Prize of the University of Cam- William Allen Sturge, author of papers on bridge has been awarded to Professor J. W.

prehistoric ethnology. Nicholson, F.R.S., for an essay on

“ Diffrac

R. W. H. Row, lecturer in zoology at King's tion.”

College, London, died on February 16, at the ACCORDING to the Proceedings of the Wash

age of thirty-four years. ington Academy of Sciences Dr. Olaf Andersen of the Mineralogical Institute, Kristiania,

The death is announced of Dr. K. H. v. and Professor Sem Sealand, professor of

Bardeleben, professor of anatomy at the Uniphysics and rector of the Technological In

versity of Jena and author of a long series stitute of Norway, at Trondhjem, have been

of works on anatomy and evolution at the visiting Washington.

age of sixty-nine years, and of Dr. R. Kobert,

professor of pharmacology, physiologic chemDr. J. N. VAN DER VRIES has resigned his

istry and the history of medicine at the Uniposition as professor of mathematics at the

versity of Rostock, an authority on materia University of Kansas to continue his work as

medica and physiologic chemistry, aged sixty. secretary of the central district of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, with headquarters at Chicago.

THE New England Federation of Natural

History Societies held its annual meeting on PROFESSOR ARTHUR A. Neish is giving before

April 25 and 26 in the Massachusetts Instithe Institute of Arts and Sciences of Colum

tute of Technology. This is a federation of bia University four lectures on “Liquid air;

some thirty societies of the New England chemistry and the war."

states which has an annual gathering in BosThe annual joint meeting of the University ton, at which the representatives of the difof Pennsylvania Chapters of the Sigma Xi ferent associations exchange experiences in and Phi Beta Kappa Societies was held on matters of natural history. Delegates were May 1. The address was by Dr. William E. present from Springfield, Mass.; Worcester, Safford, economic botanist, U. S. Department Mass.; Providence, R. I.; New Bedford, Mass.; of Agriculture, former governor of the island Lawrence, Mass., and points in Maine and of Guam, Pacific ocean, on “Plants in the New Hampshire. There were exhibitions of arts and industries of the ancient Americans.” various items in methods of handling speci

THE Yale Medical Alumni Association Lecture for this year was given on April 4 by Dr. The American Astronomical Society will William Gilman Thompson, of New York, on hold its annual meeting in Am Arbor from the Functional restoration of the disabled sol- September 1 to 3. It is announced that there dier and civilian.

will be in attendance at the conference, repreTHE RAMSAY Memorial Committee has of- sentatives from the observatories of Greenfered to the University of London a sum of not wich, Oxford, Cambridge, Vienna and Potsless than £25,000 towards the foundation of a dam.

five years.



EDUCATIONAL NOTES AND NEWS As early as 1640 the famous French matheMR. AND Mrs. WILLIAM FITZHUGH have given

matician and philosopher R. Descartes wrote $12,000 to the medical school of Stanford

as follows: University for the purchase of one gram of

I am accustomed to distinguish two things in the radium, for use in the actinography depart- mathematics, the history and the science. By hisment of the University Hospital. The net tory I mean what is already discovered, and is comincome is to be used for clinic beds for in- mitted to books. And by the science, the skill of digent patients, particularly for those who resolving all questions. need either X-ray or radium treatment.

Since the days of Descartes the amount of THEODORE HOOVER, consulting engineer, has

mathematics committed to books has increased been appointed professor of mining and metal

a hundredfold and hence the history of mathelurgy in Stanford University.

matics up to the present time has outgrown PROFESSOR W. LEE LEWIS, of Northwestern the


of a single man. University, has been elected chairman of the Successful mathematical investigators must department of chemistry to succeed Professor

perforce be mathematical historians as regards A. Van Eps Young, who has recently retired. their fields of investigation. If these fields Captain Lewis was in charge of Organic Re- extensive the successful investigators search Unit No. 3 of the Offense Research

therein require an extensive historical knowlSection, C. W. S. during 1918 and is at

edge. Such men are, however, not commonly present assisting Colonel W. D. Bancroft in

known as mathematical historians but as editing the researches of the American Uni

mathematical investigators. The former term versity Experiment Station.

is usually reserved for those whose historical DR. GEORGE W. Wilson, of the Rockefeller studies include details relating to the older Institute for Medical Research, has been ap- developments, which usually have little conpointed head of the department of pathology, tact with modern advances. bacteriology and preventive medicine in the The historical mathematics which is of Loyola University School of Medicine,

greatest interest to the investigator engaged Chicago.

in advancing mathematics is usually based on JULIAN G. LEACH, of the University of considerable technical knowledge and hence Minnesota, has been appointed assistant pro- it would scarcely be treated in a section comfessor of botany in the Colorado Agricultural posed largely of non-mathematicians. On the College.

other hand, the historical mathematics which

is now commonly known as mathematical hisDISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE

tory has extensive contact with the history APROPOS OF THE PROPOSED HISTORICAL

of other sciences and might profitably be SCIENCE SECTION

treated in such a section. The fact that the In the April 4 number of SCIENCE, page 331, Felix Neumann referred to a proposed “ His

proposed name “ Historical Science” would torical ScienceSection of the American

be too comprehensive as regards mathematics Association for the Advancement of Science.

can scarcely be regarded as a serious objection If the feasibility of forming such a section

since the questions which would normally is to be seriously considered during the meet

come before such a section would naturally be ing at St. Louis it would be of interest to

determined by its membership. know how the various sciences would probably

In a broad way it might perhaps be said be affected by this section. As regards mathe

that the mathematical history suitable for matics, in particular, it is very difficult to such a general section might include pracsay what is historical mathematics and what tically all the useful developments in this subis non-historical mathematics.

ject before the beginning of the eighteenth century, a considerable part of the develop- After the second day the curve of the daily ments during the eighteenth century, and a average weights showed a marked difference very minor part of later developments. The between the two groups. After approximately unequal emphasis which such a section would

two weeks the one group began to exhibit the thus place on the different chapters in the typical symptoms of lack of vitamins. Death history of mathematics would be partly com- occurs so promptly in the young chicks after pensated by the fact that it would prepare the the onset of symptoms that care must be taken way for a more sympathetic attitude towards to at once feed the ailing chicks with vitamin mathematical history in general.

containing food. Small amounts of milk, If such a section is formed it should be scraped apple, lettuce, etc., sufficed to cause understood that the more technical and per- prompt recovery with marked acceleration in haps the more important part of the history the rate of growth. of science is of such a nature that it can be We of course recognize that no new results appreciated only by the specialists in the fields have been achieved but felt that the method to which it relates. There is, however, a great of demonstration was worthy of note. need for work on intercommunicating roads

R. J. SEYMOUR, in science and such a section might tend to

E. P. DURRANT improve these roads.





AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH OUR experience recently with the use of

The development of military aviation has chicks for the purpose of demonstrating to

been one of the wonders of the war, but we classes in elementary physiology the rôle of

have naturally been kept somewhat in the vitamins in a diet has been so satisfactory

dark as to the exact extent of such developthat we thought it might be of interest to

ment while the war was still in progress. The other teachers.

veil has now been lifted, and General Seely, The day-old chick is so universally avail

in speaking on the Air Estimates in the House able, so easily reared, and its growth is so

of Commons on March 13, has given us a rapid that it makes an admirable laboratory striking summary of the progress made duranimal for such a demonstration. Because of

ing the past four years. The fact that the ex. their hardiness Leghorn chicks were selected

penditure on the Air Force has increased twoand divided into two groups of equal number hundred-fold since the outbreak of hostilities and weight. Both the control group and the is a sufficient comment on the enormous adone to be tested (such chicks being easily vances that have taken place in the aeronautmarked with dye) were placed in the same ical world. General Seely states that if the large cage with free access to water, grit, shell, armistice had not been signed, this year's estietc. Both groups were allowed to partake mates would have reached the sum of £200,freely from food kept in a feeder. The food

000,000—an amount which is practically four thus accessible consisted of either highly times our pre-war expenditure on the entire milled corn-n -meal, crumbs of unleavened white


Even with the signing of peace in flour bread, or cakes baked from rice flour, or

sight the sum of £66,500,000 is asked for, in combinations of any or all of these. Changes order to ensure the maintenance of the aerial were frequently made so that the chicks ate

supremacy which we have gained during the readily of the food furnished. In addition to this the normal or control group was fed It is exceedingly gratifying to note that the once a day with small an

of food con- true value of research is at last being apprecitaining vitamins.

ated, and the specific provision of £3,000,000


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