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particular cases, but only to mention an impersonal criterion for showing that the generic determinations of bees in the lists cited were erroneous.
At first he takes the second of my alternatives and holds that the bees differ from all of the other groups of insects, and even among plants are only comparable with the Poales. Then he changes about, makes the erroneous assumption that the bees and Lower Aculeata were more completely represented in the local list, and arrives at the mistaken conclusion that such a condition would explain the discrepancy between the averages of these insects and the others.
Stevens compares Andrena with Carex. The so-called genus Andrena reminds one of the time when all of the owls were referred to Strix. It would not seem so large if the sexes were not described as distinct species. In a recent paper only 4.6 per cent. of the socalled species were described from both sexes. If one is so careless of his entomology and diction as to say species when he means sex, what is to keep him from saying subgenus or quidnunc-group instead of genus ! One who ignores the fact that bees have two sexes is not competent to distinguish any genera except those based on characters common' to both sexes.
If you should disregard the secondary sexual characters and the habits of the females, how well could you understand the classification of the Hymenoptera in general.
Small divides Carex into two subgenera and 34 what-d'ye-call-'ems-named groups with subfamily, family, ordinal and other endings. One might like to know what categories the organisms form, not how they are to be forced to fit preconceived categories. The genus seems to be regarded with superstitious reverence when it contains 34 groups of the second order. Even the analogy of the Poales is against the bees. In the Fargo flora the Poales stand 2.3 against a general average of 1.8, while in the Carlinville list the bees stand 6. 5 against an average of 1.7.
Compared with the general average the bees and Lower Aculeata show a great discrepancy
in both lists without regard to their percentages in the composition of them. The Coleoptera, respectively 33.7 and 10.6 per cent., approach the average in each list. In the local list the Coleoptera are quite fragmentary compared with the Diptera, but the average is about the same. The list of Rhopalocera, which is as complete as that of the bees, shows an average of 1.4 to the bees 6.5, while the Heterocera, which are quite fragmentary, average 1.2. The Bombyliidae, Conopidæ, Syrphidæ, Tachinidæ and Muscidæ, in which the local list is quite complete, show 1.7 while the other Diptera average 1.6. The 437 local entomophilous flowers on which insect visitors were taken average 1.6 while the 520 plants of the Fargo flora average 1.8.
Although Stevens argues against small groups he says that he believes in the recognition of them, but he doubts the necessity of forcing them upon every one.
The statement that neglected groups will be subdivided about like those which have been more thoroughly studied hardly involves an attempt to force small groups upon any one. You may say that a river runs south without trying to force the water on those who live down stream.
TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: The letter from Professor John L. Rich in your issue of January 11, 1918, escaped my notice at the time and my attention was not drawn to it until very recently. Hence this belated reply.
I agree thoroughly with Professor Rich that geomorphology has an interpretative geological value, and I admit that, for the sake of economy of space, it may be necessary sometimes to compress the geographical aspect of a geomorphological description and its geological interpretation into a single paper from which the geographer and the geologist will each attempt to pick out the points that interest him. The introduction of certain geological dates into a paper with such a double purpose is excusable, but it is the thin end of a wedge which may lead to much obscurity.
The artifice of placing geological names in
footnotes, where they do not break the con- Biological Station on Flathead Lake the past tinuity of the descriptive text, and of adding further geological information in an appendix During the summer of 1917 flowers bloomed is useful in drawing attention to the geo- luxuriantly about the station grounds, and logical value of an interpretation of the physi- humming-birds and butterflies visited the ography in a paper written primarily to ex- flowers very commonly. Rodents were present plain and describe the land forms. This in normal numbers, but attracted no particumethod I adopted in “ The Physiography of lar attention. the Middle Clarence Valley, New Zealand.”ı Conditions were markedly changed during
In the case of my paper “Block Mountains the summer of 1918. For unknown reasons in New Zealand,” to which Professor Rich the rodents became very abundant. Pine refers, the age of the covering strata in Cen- squirrels and chipmunks were everywhere prestral Otago is uncertain within fairly wide ent. Spermophiles appeared on the station limits. The statement that they are probably grounds for the first time in the history Oamaruian but possibly Wanganuian would
of the institution. The chipmunks quickly not convey much definite information to cleared the ground of flowers and ascended to American readers. When I was preparing
the tops of trees to strip the honeysuckle vines the paper for publication the temptation to
of their blossoms. Deprived of their natural discuss the age question was strong, and I
food in this vicinity humming-birds were yielded to it. Realizing that the discussion
rarely seen and butterflies were very uncomwould be out of place in the body of the
mon. Pine squirrels kept the ground under paper I placed it in an appendix, which, how
the pine trees well strewn with pine cones, but ever, the editor wisely omitted.
the effect of this inroad upon the pine cones This article was not written with a dual was not so apparent upon other forms of life. purpose. The geological significance of the Weasels, which were not observed about the land forms of Central Otago, as well as the
station the preceding summer, were closely related forms throughout New Zealand
several times during 1918. Great horned owls had already received full attention in a paper
hooted at night in the nearby tree tops. These entitled “ The Structure and Later Geological
birds had not been reported for 1917.' History of New Zealand,” published in the
G. B. CLAYCOMB
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
QUOTATIONS aration at the same time, the one frankly
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF A WORKING DAY geological, the other geographical. As such
GRADUAL reduction of the hours of labor the latter was intended for publication in a
from ten or nine to eight, and now to seven geographical periodical and was offered to the Royal Geographical Society, which was
or six, must have made many people wonder
whether some scientific basis might not be unable, however, to find space for it in its
found for the hours which should be worked Journal.
C. A. COTTON
in various trades. Major A. C. Farquharson VICTORIA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE,
raised the matter in the discussion on the WELLINGTON, N. Z.
second reading of the Ministry of Health
Bill. Speaking as one who had spent the “A WAVE OF LIFE"
greater part of his professional life in the An interrelation of organisms somewhat service of the miner, he expressed his astonishsuggestive of Hudson's “wave of life” was ment that members of the House of Commons observable about the University of Montana should be so ready to put forward the idea 1 Geog. Jour., vol. 42, 1913, pp. 225–46.
that the number of hours a man should work 2 December 6, vol. 3, 1916, pp. 243-249, 314-320. day by day was to be settled by the arbitrary
capricious decision of the mass. He contended of severe labor, broken by longer spells of that it was a scientific problem, and suggested rest; the point is illustrated by the story of a that if science could establish that a normal wager between two officers at the front as to man could work up to a given standard with- the time to be taken in making equal lengths out detriment to his physical condition and of a trench, each with an equal squad of men. without injury to his health or chance of One officer let his men work as they pleased, longevity, the number of hours of a working but as hard as possible. The other divided his day could be standardized. In the discussion men into three sets, to work in rotation, each on the bill in committee he contended that set digging their hardest for five minutes and there ought to be a scientific department, then resting for ten. The second team won working in relation with the Ministry of easily. Another conclusion—this time in a Health, to decide various matters of a physio- report by Dr. H. M. Vernon to the same comlogical nature in relation to capital and labor, mittee-was that the hours of labor ought to including suitable hours of work. We may be varied between wide limits according to point out that a large amount of scientific the character of the work performed. This work had been done in this direction, some of seems the most promising line of inquiry.which is summarized in the reports of the British Medical Journal. Health of Munition Workers Committee, but the subject is complex and physiology is far
SCIENTIFIC BOOKS from having found a complete solution. It is comparatively easy to estimate the amount of Injurious Insects and Useful Birds. By F. L. energy given out in various kinds of work at WASHBURN, M.A. Philadelphia, J. B. Lipvarious paces, but muscle fatigue is only one
pincott Co. Pp. xviii + 453. Price $1.75. and probably the least important element in
This little book is one of a series called fatigue. There is in addition the mental ele- “Lippincott's Farm Manuals” edited by Dr. ment, which can not be measured, and the
K. C. Davis, and now containing about a dozen nervous element, which it will be possible to hand-books on as many phases of agricultural measure with difficulty if at all. Nervous practise. The author of this volume, Profatigue occurs in the initiating and dis- fessor Washburn, has for many years held the tributing nervous mechanisms of the brain positions of state entomologist of Minnesota, and spinal cord, which are more quickly professor of entomology, University of Minnefatigued than the contracting muscles; con
sota and entomologist of the Agricultural Exsequently in the animal body the impulses to periment Station, consequently as an investiactivity, springing from the brain, can not
gator and teacher he is in possession of some bring the muscles far towards complete fatigue first-hand knowledge and is posted regarding before their sources are themselves fatigued
the work of others. A list of questions at the and impotent. Though a tired man may refer
end of each chapter shows the custom of the his tiredness to the muscles, in reality the
teacher. most severe bodily activity does not produce
The book is divided into twenty-one chapany close approach to complete fatigue of the ters, with headings as follows: Loss to Agrimuscles. The fatigue is of the nervous sys
culture Due to Insects and Rodents; Farm tem, though its effects may be referred to the
Practises to Lessen Insect and Rodent Inmuscles. The conclusion of the committee juries; External Structure of Insects, Orders, was that the problems of industrial fatigue Metamorphosis; Collecting and Preserving were primarily, and probably almost wholly, Insects; Insectides and Spraying; Fumigaproblems of fatigue in the nervous system and tion; Insects Injurious to the Apple; Insects of its direct and indirect effects. Another Affecting the Pear and Quince; Plum, Peach complicating matter is that the human body and Cherry Insects; Insect Pests of Berries seems to be adapted to withstand short spells and Grapes; Principal Insects affecting Citrus Fruits; Insects affecting Field Crops and part of the American Anthropological AssoPasturage; Insects affecting Truck Crops and ciation in regard to the position of anthrothe Vegetable Garden; Insect Enemies of pology in the work of the National Research Greenhouse and House Plants and of the Council. Flower Garden; Insects affecting Shade Trees; In consequence of this request and the disInsects affecting Man and the Household; In- cussion following it, the undersigned comsects and Insect-like Animals attacking Stock mittee was appointed for the purpose of giving and Poultry; Mill and Elevator Insects and to the National Research Council information Mill Fumigation; Our Insect Friends; The in regard to the work actually done by AmerRelations of Birds to Agriculture; Some four- ican anthropologists. A statement has been footed pests of the Farm.
added pointing out the causes for the slow There are four colored plates, and 414 illus- development of certain branches of anthrotrations in the text, many of the figures are pology. from original photographs and drawings, and The committee has submitted a number of the others are borrowed from various sources, questions to American anthropologists and atdue credit being given.
tached to this are a number of replies to our This little volume differs from most other circular letter. manuals of injurious insects in that consider- The general tendency of the scientific work able information regarding common birds and of American anthropologists may briefly be rodents may be found in the same book. Of summarized as follows: It is but natural that course where so many species are treated in a country like our own, which contains the within the limits of a small-sized volume, the remains of a considerable number of primaccount of each must necessarily be very itive people, the historical interest in the brief. Probably the value of the work would aborigines, combined with the ease of accesshave been enhanced by giving after each one ibility of the remainder of the ancient tribes, or two references where the reader could ob- should bring it about that inquiries relating tain more complete information.
to their customs, languages and physical types Nevertheless the author has condensed a large should dominate American anthropological reamount of information in this small volume search, and that theoretical work should be which is well printed and supplied with index. based very largely upon the results obtained It will prove a convenient manual for all from a study of American tribes. The growers of plants and keepers of live stock. methods which give the easiest results in re
gard to these problems are archeological, W. E. BRITTON
ethnographical and linguistic, and for this AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, New HAVEN, CONN.
reason these three lines of inquiry have hitherto predominated in the research work of
American anthropologists. ANTHROPOLOGICAL RESEARCH1
At the same time the necessity for a broader At the meeting of the American Anthro- outlook is keenly felt. The Field Museum of pological Association held in Baltimore, De- Natural History has included in the scope of cember 27, Professor J. C. Merriam, repre
its work Eastern Asia, Malaysia and Melanesia. senting the National Research Council, made Harvard University has expanded its work a formal statement of the plans of the council over Africa.
The University of Pennsylvania in regard to the organization of science, and has undertaken research work in South Amerrequested an expression of opinion on the ica, the American Museum of Natural History
and the United States National Museum, in 1 Report of the Committee of the American Anthropological Association to Professor G. E.
Asia, and a few other attempts of similar kind Hale, chairman of the National Research Council, for obtaining a wider basis for research in Washington, D. C.
cultural history may be noted.
The field of work of American anthropolo- the National Research Council is largely based gists is also in part determined by the char- on the fact that the humanities find no place acter of the institutions that maintain anthro- in the general scheme of work of the Research pological work. The Bureau of American Council. While anthropology must necessarily Ethnology which forms part of the Smithson- be based on the one hand on biological science, ian Institution is by law restricted to work on the other hand it is intimately associated on the natives of America and the Hawaiian with the humanities. It is impossible to treat Islands. Most positions held by working an- even the biological problems of anthropology thropologists are museum positions, and con- without a due regard to the cultural aspect of sequently the scientific work is largely re- anthropology, because the forces which deterstricted to those aspects of anthropology that mine the development of human types are to yield tangible specimens. University positions a very large extent cultural forces. are on the whole of such a character that the The peculiar position of anthropology brings funds necessary for the conduct of field work about close contact with a great many differare not supplied by the universities, but if ent sciences biology, geology, paleontology, available at all, come from museums.
geography, psychology, history, linguistics and Anthropologists have felt for a long time the whole range of humanities. Cooperation that their work needs expansion, and many will be necessary according to the particular attempts have been made to free anthropo- type of problems taken up, and anthropology logical research from the restrictions depend- will be best served by an entirely free associaent upon the association of anthropological tion with different subjects, according to the work with museums on the one hand, and need of each case. from those conditions that tend to give undue It is the opinion of the undersigned compreponderance to work on American Indians mittee that the appointment of a director of on the other hand. Attempts have been made anthropological work, who would have a domiparticularly to direct attention to African nating influence over organized work, would problems, which are of importance to us on not be helpful on account of the great diversity account of our large negro population, and of subject matter included in anthropology, also to investigations on racial anthropology and might prove decidedly prejudicial on acamong the white and negro populations of count of the necessity of developing this subthe United States. Work of this kind needs ject in different directions. Much better refinancial support, but all attempts have failed sults would undoubtedly be obtained by reguto interest the government institutions which lar meetings of representative scientists, and command considerable funds, or private in- by the appointment of a secretary who would dividuals, to support work of this type. There carry out the necessary clerical work, is a peculiar hesitancy in regard to under
FRANZ Boas, Chairman, takings of this kind, which will not be over
ALEŠ HRDLIČKA, come until more work on a smaller scale has
ALFRED M. TOZZER been done. Investigations of this description NEW YORK CITY, have been undertaken by American anthro
March 6, 1919 pologists and by educators, sociologists and medical men with anthropological leanings.
SPECIAL ARTICLES Recently, biologists have also directed their EGG-WEIGHT AS A CRITERION OF NUMERICAL
PRODUCTION IN THE DOMESTIC FOWLI attention to this subject, but methods applied and results obtained up to this time are quite
IN connection with a study of the manner unsatisfactory. Work on human paleontology of inheritance of egg-weight in the domestic is also not vigorously pursued.
1 Contribution 251 from the Agricultural ExThe difficulty of giving anthropological. re- periment Station of the Rhode Island State Col. search an adequate position in the scheme of lege, Kingston, R. I.